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Pock Soo Kang 17 Articles
Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Cognitive Function Change of the Elderly in a Rural Area, Korea.
Sang Kyu Kim, Tae Yoon Hwang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Pock Soo Kang, Hee Soon Cho, Young Kyung Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):261-266.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.261
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to examine the cognitive function change related to aging, the incidence of cognitive impairment, and the association between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and cognitive impairment through a follow-up of the elderly with normal cognitive ability at baseline. METHODS: Two hundred and fifteen subjects aged 65 and over were surveyed in February, 1998 (baseline survey), and their cognitive function was assessed again in 2003 (1st follow-up) and the once again in 2006 (2nd follow-up). Ninety one subjects completed all surveys up through the 2nd follow-up and their cognitive function scores using MMSE-K (Korean Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the distribution of apolipoprotein E allele were analyzed. RESULTS: The cognitive function scores decreased with aging and the difference between baseline and the 2nd follow-up scores of the study increased with the age group. The incidence rate of cognitive impairment through an 8-year follow-up was 38.5% and higher in older age groups. Age was the only significant factor for incidence of cognitive impairment, but there was no significant association between apolipoprotein E genotype and incidence of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The cognition of the elderly decreased with aging and the association of apolipoprotein E genotype with incidence of cognitive impairment was not significant in this study. To confirm the association between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and incidence of cognitive impairment further studies will be needed.
Summary

Citations

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  • ApoE Type 4 Allele Affects Cognitive Function of Aged Population in Tianjin City, China
    Shoudan Sun, Jingming Fu, Jun Chen, Wei Pang, Ruomei Hu, Haiqiang Li, Long Tan, Yugang Jiang
    American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementiasr.2015; 30(5): 503.     CrossRef
Change of Cognitive Function and Associated Factors among the Rural Elderly: A 5-Year Follow-up Study.
Sang Kyu Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Tae Yoon Hwang, Joon Sakong, Kyeong Soo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(2):162-168.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.2.162
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This prospective population-based cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of cognitive impairment and the degree of cognitive function change through a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: The baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted in 1998 and 2003, respectively. Among 176 subjects who had normal cognitive function in the baseline study, 136 were followed up for 5 years. The cognitive function was investigated using the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and Stata. RESULTS: Of the 136 subjects analyzed, 25 (18.4%) were cognitively impaired. Old age and low social support in the baseline survey were risk factors for cognitive impairment after 5 years. In the generalized estimating equation for 128 subjects except severe cognitive impairment about the contributing factors of cognitive function change, the interval of 5 years decreased MMSE-K score by 1.02 and the cognitive function was adversely affected with increasing age, decreasing education and decreasing social support. CONCLUSIONS: Although the study population was small, it was considered that the study results can be used to develop a community-based prevention system for cognitive impairment.
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  • Status of Physical and Mental Function and, Its Related Factors Among the Elderly People Using from Long-Term Care Insurance Service
    Nam-Kyou Bae, Young-Soo Song, Eun-Sook Shin, Young-Chae Cho
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2012; 13(12): 5976.     CrossRef
  • Toxicities and functional consequences of systemic chemotherapy in elderly Korean patients with cancer: A prospective cohort study using Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment
    Dong-Yeop Shin, Jeong-Ok Lee, Yu Jung Kim, Myung-Sook Park, Keun-Wook Lee, Kwang-Il Kim, Soo-Mee Bang, Jong Seok Lee, Cheol-Ho Kim, Jee Hyun Kim
    Journal of Geriatric Oncology.2012; 3(4): 359.     CrossRef
  • Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Cognitive Function Change of the Elderly in a Rural Area, Korea
    Sang-Kyu Kim, Tae-Yoon Hwang, Kyeong-Soo Lee, Pock-Soo Kang, Hee-Soon Cho, Young-Kyung Bae
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2009; 42(4): 261.     CrossRef
Effects of the Personal Stereo System on Hearing in Adolescents.
Jong Seo Park, Sean Hee Oh, Pock Soo Kang, Chang Yoon Kim, Kyeong Soo Lee, Tae Yoon Hwang, Joon Sakong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(2):159-164.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the personal stereo system on the hearing in adolescents. METHODS: A total of 68 adolescents(age: 13-18 years) who visited the ENT Department at a University Hospital in Daegu were personally interviewed. The questionnaires were about general characteristics of the subjects, the time of personal stereo system use(year, hour) and place. Cumulative exposure to the personal stereo system was calculated by the product of the total years and the daily hours of their use. Pure tone audiometry was performed and the hearing threshold was measured at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 Hz. RESULTS: The average time of using a personal stereo system a day was about 3 hours and 75% of the subjects used a personal stereo system for 2-5 years. The elevation of threshold was more prominent in the subjects who used personal stereo systems for 4 years and more compared with those subjects who used them for 3 years and under. The elevation of hearing threshold was also more prominent in the subjects who used personal stereo systems for 4 hours and more a day compared with those subjects who used personal stereo systems for 3 hours and under a day. The elevation of hearing threshold was more prominent in the subjects who used personal stereo systems for 13 hour..years and more compared to the subjects who used them 12 hour..years and under. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the elevation of hearing threshold can happen to adolescents who used personal stereo systems for a long time. In order to prevent hearing loss, we need to teach adolescents appropriate usage of the personal stereo system and hearing tests should be included in the periodic school-based physical examination for the adolescents.
Summary
Prevalence and Related Factors of Knee Osteoarthritis in Rural Woman.
Sung Ho Yun, Pock Soo Kang, Seok Beom Kim, Kyeong Soo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):331-336.
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OBJECTIVES
To assess the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis through proper diagnosis in a rural community and to elucidate the relevant factors of this health problem in order to develop educational methods for the prevention of female knee osteoarthritis as well to provide basic data for prospective research. METHODS: Over a period of three months starting from August, 2000, 432 women over the age of 40 and living in a rural area were selected by a multistage cluster sampling method in order to investigate the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and the related factors. The study utilized interviews and radiological examination. The criteria of knee osteoarthritis used was the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for osteoarthritis of the knee(1995). RESULTS: The adjusted prevalence of knee osteoarthritis among the subjects was 55.0%, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio(OR) of knee osteoarthritis among subjects 50-59 years of age and subjects older than 60 years of age as compared to subjects 40-49 years of age were 2.43(95% CI: 1.30-4.70) and 4.40(95% CI: 2.47-7.83), respectively. The OR of knee osteoarthritis among factory workers or farmers as compared to others was 1.79(95% CI: 1.03-3.12). The OR of knee osteoarthritis among subjects who had a family history and subjects who had knee injury or surgical history against those subjects had neither were 2.56(95% CI: 1.42-4.63) and 4.70(95% CI:1.45-15.19), respectively. The OR of knee osteoarthritis among smokers against non smokers was 0.47(95% CI: 0.22-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Related factors of knee osteoarthritis included age, occupation, family history, smoking, knee injury and history of surgery. In order to prevent knee osteoarthritis in high risked rural woman, education concerning self-care methods and safety guideline must be provided at the work place by the public and private health sectors. Additionally, these women should be continually encouraged to exercise, including jogging and swimming regularly.
Summary
The Patient Recognition, Acceptability and Evaluation of Feasibility for Day Surgery.
Young Ah Kang, Young Ran Beak, Kyeong Soo Lee, Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(3):334-342.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted in order to investigate the degree of recognition, acceptability, and attitude towards day surgery of patients who were hospitalized with diseases that were candidates for day surgery; in order to analyze the average length of stay for treatment of the ailments; and to analyze the percentage of patients who could be discharged on the same day after the surgery using the post-anesthesia discharge scoring system. METHODS: Data was collected between February 1 and March 31, 1999 from 353 patients who received surgery for cataract, adenoid hypertrophy, inguinal hernia, strabismus, ptosis, cholelithiasis, hemorrhoid, or anal fistula, at a general hospital in Daegu city. The patients were interviewed and surveyed by a post-anesthesia discharge scoring system(PADS) in order to collect data on patient condition such as vital signs, activity and mental status, pain, nausea and vomiting, surgical bleeding, intake and output after the surgery. RESULTS: Among the 353 patients, 52.7% were awar of the day surgery and 52.1% were interested in day surgery. Of the respondents, 43.1% said 'my ailment was not serious and the surgery was simple' and 30.4% said 'according to my condition rest at home was desirable' as the reasons for wanting day surgery Alternatively, 56.5% of those declining day surgery said the 'uncertainty of staying home' was the reason. The greatest concern in discharging within 24 hours after surgery was a post-op emergency situation. On the other hand, the shortened hospitalization was the largest advantage of day surgery with 39.1% responding this way, followed by the savings in hospitalization costs (25.8%) and emotional stability (13.7%). The majority of those surveyed (47.6%) believed that discharge should be determined within 1-2 days after the surgery. The average hospital stay was 3.1 days for dischargeable ailments. Pain (45.6%), nausea and vomiting (10.5%), and headache (7.9%) were the common symptoms following surgery. The percentage of patients who were able to be discharged within 24 hours after surgery revealed 95.2% were dischargeable after approximately 3 hours, 99.2% dischargeable after 12 hours, and 100% dischargeable atter 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: According to the PADS score, the cataract extract and strabismus correction patients were eligible for day surgery and the further evaluation concerning the reason for delayed recovery of the other diseases is needed.
Summary
Community-based Helicobacter pylori Screening and its Effects on Eradication in Patients with Dyspepsia.
Seong Ho Kim, Dae Yong Hong, Pock Soo Kang, Seok Beom Kim, Kyeong Soo Lee, Sang Kyu Kim, Jeong Ill Suh, Mee Kyung Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(3):285-298.
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CONCLUSIONS: To investigate the positive rate of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia; medical compliance and related factors; the eradication rate a year after screening and related factors; the relationship between the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and the improvement of symptoms; and the estimated cost of three alternative approaches to treat Helicobacter pylori in the community. METHODS: A total of 510 subjects with dyspeptic symptoms were selected and given the serological test in March 1998. The subjects were all adults over 30 years of age residing in Kyongju city. RESULTS: Of the 510 selected subjects, 375 (73.5%) subjects proved positive for Helicobacter pylori on serological testing. Of these 304 (81.1%) who consented to an endoscopic examination, underwent a Campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test. Of these 304 subjects, 204 (67.1%), who had positive CLO test results, were given the triple therapy - tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, amoxicillin, and metronidazole. To determine the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori, 181 (88.7%) out of the 204 subjects who were given the triple therapy completed a follow-up urea breath test one year later. Of these, the Helicobacter pylori of 87(48.1%) subjects was eradicated. Among the 122 subjects who were medication compliant, the Helicobacter pylori eradication rate was 57.4% (70 subjects), while the eradication rates was only 28.8% (17subjects) in the non-compliant group. The Helicobacter pylori eradication was significantly related to compliance (p<0.01), but not to other characteristics and habits. The symptom improvement rate tended to be higher 62.1%), in the Helicobacter pylori eradicated group than in the non-eradicated group (59.6%). CONCLUSIONS: When the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative treatment were considered in the light of cost, antibiotic tolerance and the number of patients to be treated, alternative II was favorable in terms of cost. Alternative III was favorable in terms of the number of patients to be treated, antibiotic tolerance and early detection of gastric cancer. Further long-term research analyzing the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of each treatment will be needed as supporting material in creating new policies.
Summary
Association between Cognitive Impairment and ADL of the Elderly in Rural Area.
Sang Kyu Kim, Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(1):65-71.
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this investigation was to study the correlation between cognitive impairment and activities of daily living(ADL) in the elderly of rural area. METHODS: The study population consisted of 210 elderly people aged 65 years and older, living in a district of Kyongju City. The cognitive impairment was measured with the Korean version of mini-mental state examination(MMSE-K) and newly constructed the Korean version of mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE). Bristol activities of daily living scale developed specifically to be used with people with dementia was used to measure ADL. RESULTS: The mean scores of both MMSE-K and K-MMSE were significantly different by sex groups and by age groups, respectively(p<0.05). The mean scores of ADL were significantly different by age groups(p<0.01) not by sex groups. Among the 4 components of ADL(instrumental activities of daily living(IADL), self care, orientation, and mobility), the mean score of the orientation was significantly higher in men(p<0.01); and IADL, orientation and mobility components were significantly different by age groups(p<0.01). ADL correlated well with MMSE-K (r=0.54) and K-MMSE(r=0.52) and showed higher correlation in female (r=0.73, 0.71) than male(r=0.27, 0.29). IADL and orientation showed significant correlation with MMSE-K(r=0.52, 0.62) and K-MMSE(r=0.50, 0.63), respectively(p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In developing and establishing a care model for people with dementia in the community, both cognitive impairment and the activities of daily living(ADL) need to be considered.
Summary
Trend of Medical Care Utilization and Medical Expenditure of the Elderly Cohort.
Kyeong Soo Lee, Pock Soo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(2):437-461.
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Because of a significant improvement in the economic situation and development of scientific techniques in Korea during the last 30 years, the life expectancy of the Korean people has lengthened considerably and as a result, the number of the elderly has markedly increased. Such an increase of the number of aged population brought about many social, economic, and medical problems which were never seriously considered before. This study was conducted to assess the trend of medical care utilization and medical expenditure of the elderly. The data of each patient in the study were taken from computer database maintained for administrative purpose by the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation. The study population was 132,670 who were 60 years old or more and registered in Korean Medical Insurance Corporation from 1989 to 1993. The study subjects were predominantly female(56.3%) and 10,000-20,000 Won premium group(50.6%). The following are summaries of findings : The total increase of the number of inpatient cases was 40.5% from 1989 through 1993. The average annual increase was 3.7% in inpatient medical expenditures per case, 4.4% in inpatient medical expenditures per day and 0.08% in length of stay per case from 1989 through 1993. Cataract was the most prevalent disease of 10 leading frequent diseases in all ages from 1989 through 1993. The case mix in 1993 compared to 1989 revealed that cataract and ischemic cerebral disease were increased whereas essential hypertension and pulmonary tuberculosis were decreased. The average annual increase of medical expenditures was 3.8% in general hospitals, 6.3% in hospitals and 2.4% in clinics. From 1989 through 1993, medical expenditures used by high-cost patients accounted for about 14% to 20% of all expenditures for inpatient care, while they represented less than 2.5% of the elderly population. Time series analysis revealed that total medical expenditures and doctor's fee for inpatient will be progressively increased whereas drug expenditures for inpatient will be decreased. And there will be no change in length of stay. Based on the above results, the factors increasing medical cost and utilization should be identified and the method of cost containment for the elderly health care should be developed systematically.
Summary
Referral Patterns and Needs for Specialist Care among Patient Referred from Health Center.
Tae Yoon Hwang, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):133-143.
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This study was conducted to assess the referral patterns to specialist from general practitioners in health center and perceived needs of referred patients for specialist care in health center. The study subjects were 249 patients who visited to health centers and were referred to other medical facilities. The data were obtained from questionnaire survey which was conducted in Kyongjuu-city Health center, Seongju-Gun Health center and Koryong-Gun Health center in Kyongsangbuk-Do, from June 10 to october 17, 1995. The total referral rate was 2.7%. The proportion of patients who wished to be referred to medical specialists was 85.9%, and the proportion of patients referred by general practitioners in health centers was 14.1%. Among the patients who wished to be referred to medical specialists, 45.9% visited directly to health centers, 34.6% visited health centers via local clinics and 19.5% visited health centers to get referral permission only. The reasons for getting referral permission in health centers were easy geographical accessibility(34.6 %), easy to get referral permission in health centers(27.l%), and very difficult to get referral permission in local clinics(l6.4%). Among the diseases of referred patients, diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue were most prevalent on a whole, but diseases of nervous system and sensory organs were comparatively high among the patients who wished to be referred to medical specialists and infectious and parasitic diseases were comparatively high among the patients referred by general practitioners in health centers. The most favorable medical facility was general hospital including university hospital in both groups of patients who wished to be referred to medical specialist and the patient referred by general practitioners in health centers. Regarding the needs for specialist care in health center, 75.2% patients who wished to be referred to medical specialists and 74.3% of patients referred by general practitioners in health center wanted the specialist care. The most frequently requested speciality is internal medicine(47.1%), and then orthopedics and general surgery. Based on above results, this study revealed that the majority of patients referred from health center wished to be referred to medical specialists at their own will, so, referral system at health center level should be changed. And if specialist care in health center be provided, the medical care by internist could be provided first, and then that of orthopedics and general surgery could be provided. These kinds of medical cares could be covered by local clinicians as a part-time job on a voluntary basis.
Summary
Factors Influencing Compliance with Anti-Tuberculosis Therapy.
Cheon Tae Kim, Kyeong Soo Lee, Pock Soo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):79-90.
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The purpose of the study was to determine factors influencing compliance with anti-tuberculosis therapy. The study subjects were 104 tuberculosis patients who have received the initial treatment in 3 health centers of Kyongju-city, Dalseong-Gun in Teagu and Kumi-city. Data were collected between september and october 1995. The patients were classified into the improved group and the non-improved group according to outcomes of 3 month treatment with short-term therapeutic regimen. To find factors influencing compliance with anti-tuberculosis therapy, multiple logistic regression was made. There was no significant differences between the improved group and the non-improved group in sex, age, education level, occupation, family pattern, and habitual change regarding smoking and drinking. The level of knowledge about anti-tuberculosis therapy in the improved group was significantly higher than the non-improved group(p<0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that family support for not forgetting medication(p<0.05) was a predictor of improvement and knowledge about anti-tuberculosis therapy (p=0.054), regularity of medication(p=0.062), and consultation to family, doctor and nurse(p=0.075)were marginal predictors of improvement. Treatment must be given to every patient confirmed as having tuberculosis and must be given free of charge to the patients. The requirements for adequate chemotherapy are prescribed in the correct dosage and taken regularly by the patient for a sufficient period to prevent relapse of the disease after cure. It is suggested that education to the patients should be reinforced and connectedness between patients and tuberculosis control workers and family should be solidated.
Summary
Effects of Regional Medical Insurance on Utilization of Medical Care in Urban Population.
Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(1):117-134.
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The effects of regional medical insurance on utilization of medical care in urban population was examined in this study. The data was collected in a 2-year follow-up household survey conducted at Taegu city before and after implementation of the regional medical insurance. The study population was divided into 2 groups. Cohort I was the uninsured in 1989 and cohort II was the insured in 1989. After the coverage of medical insurance, physician visit rate per 1,000 population, use-disability ratio and use-restricted activity ratio in cohort I were increased compared to cohort II in both of acute and chronically ill people. The use-disability ratio and use-restricted activity ratio of the insured poor were lower than those of the insured nonpoor in both of cohort I and cohort II. The major reasons for pharmacy use were accessibility and affordability before the coverage of medical insurance in cohort I, however, after the coverage of medical insurance, the important reason was accessibility rather than affordabifity. In logistic regression analysis of physician visit, the significant independent variables were acute illness episode(+), chronic illness episode(+) and income(+) in both of cohort I and cohort II. In cohort I, after the coverage of medical insurance, more people replied that the medical cost of hospital and clinic was reasonable. The people who covered by the regional medical insurance were more dissatisfied with the imposed premium than those who covered by other types of medical insurance in both of cohort I and cohort II. More people in cohort II than cohort I were dissatisfied with the services from hospitals and clinics after implementation of the regional medical insurance. In conclusion. after the coverage of medical insurance, the gap between the poor and the nonpoor still exists in terms of medical care utilization.
Summary
A Comparative Study on the Pattern of Outpatient Department Utilization at a Tertiary Level Hospital before and after Implementation of the Patient Referral System.
Kyeong Soo Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(1):88-100.
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This study was conducted to assess the effects of implementation of the patient referral system started July 1st, 1989. A comparison on the pattern of outpatient services of the Departments of Internal Medicine, General Surgery, and Pediatrics at the Yeungnam University Hospital was conducted for each one year period before and after implementation of the patient referral system. The pre-implementation period was from July 1. 1988 to June 30, 1989 and the post-implementation period was from July 1. 1989 to June 30, 1990. The information used for this study was obtained from official forms, prepared by the Yeungnam University Hospital, and submitted to the Korean Medical Insurance Cooperatives. After implementation of the patient referral system, the number of outpatient cases in the Department of Internal Medicine decreased 36.1% from 9,669 cases to 6,181 cases a year. Cases in the Department of General Surgery decreased 23.7% from 1,864 cases to 1,422 cases a year. The number of cases in the Department of General Surgery decreased 23.7% from 1,864 cases to 1,422 cases a year. The number of cases in the Department of Pediatrics decreased 36.9% from 3,372 cases to 2,128 cases a year. After implementation of the patient referral system, the average age of cases in the Departments of Internal Medicine and General Surgery was 52.5 and 49.7 years old, respcetively. This was a significant increase in comparison with the pre-implementation period. After implementation of patient referral system, the proportion of new outpatients in the Department of Internal Medicine decreased form 24.1% to 14.6%, the Department of General Surgery from 36.0% to 23.4%, and the Department of Pediatrics from 15.5% to 8.3%. The number of visits per case decreased significantly in the Department of Internal Medicine(from 1.74 to 1.61), but there was no significant change in the Department of General Surgery and Pediatrics. The length of treatment per case increased significantly in all three departments (form 16.1 days to 19.3 days in the Department of Internal Medicine, from 12.0 days to 15.2 days in the Department General Surgery, and 8.9 days to 11.2 days in the Department of Pediatrics). The number of clinical tests per case increased significantly in the Department of Internal Medicine (from 22. to 2.5), in the Department of Pediatrics(from 0.8 to 1.1) and increased in the Department of General Surgery(from 6.4 to 6.6). The average medical cost per case decreased form 43,900 Won to 42,500 Won in the Department of Internal Medicine, while the cost increased from 75,900 Won to 78,500 Won in the Department of General Surgery and from 12,700 Won to 13,500 Won in the Department of Pediatrics. In case-mix, the chronic degenerative disease(i. e. hypertension, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, malignant neoplasm, and pulmonary tuberculosis) ranked higher and acute infectious diseases and simple cases(i. e. gastritis and duodenitis, haemorrhoids, anal fissure, carbuncle, acute URI, and bronchitis) ranked lower after implementation of the patient referral system compared to before implementation.
Summary
Blood Lead Concentration of Taxi Drivers in Taegu, Korea.
Kun Sakong, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(3):255-261.
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Taxi drivers are exposed to vehicular exhaust aerosols which are a major source of atmospheric lead pollution in Korea where lead additives are incorporated in petrol. To investigate the blood lead concentration, their correlation factors and influences on taxi drivers, samples were collected from 90 taxi drivers who were living in the Taegu City, during August, 1989. Blood lead concentration was estimated by the atomic absoption spectrophotometer (IL.551) equipped with flameless furnace atomizer (IL.665). The results were analyzed statistically and compared with control group were 26.34 +/- 6.53 microgram/dl and 20.77 +/- 4.80 microgram/dl respectively (p<0.01). No significant correlation was observed between the blood lead concentration of taxi drivers and driver career (r=0.093). There were no difference of statistical significance in the blood lead concentration of smokers and nonsmokers.
Summary
Utilization Rate of Medical Facility and Its Related Factors in Taegu.
Seok Beom Kim, Pock Soo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(1):29-44.
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A household survey was conducted to determine the utilization rate of medical facilities and to identify the factors related with the utilization in the South District of Taegu from July 3 to July 15, 1988. Study population included 1,723 family members of 431 households which were selected by one-stage simple cluster random sampling. Well trained medical college students interviewed mainly housewives with a structurized questionnaire. Morbidity rate of acute illness during the 2-week period was 101 per 1,000 persons and it was highest in the age group of 9 years below. The rate for chronic illness was 77 per 1,000 persons, increasing with age, low income and medicaid benefit. During the 2-week period, 689 of 1,000 persons utilized the medical facilities, Of the facilities, most number, 294, used hospital and clinic, and the order ran as pharmacy, health center, and herb medical clinic. The utilization rate was higher in the female, 70-year and older group, medicaid group, the lowest income class and self-employed group than other groups. The average number of visits among users of medical facilities during the 2-week period was 3.25. those who visited medical facilities most frequently were females, the 70-year and older group, the lowest income class and blue collar worker group. During one-year period, admission rate of 1,000 persons was 27.6 and that of female was 38.9, higher than that of male. the eldest group had the highest admission rate. Admission rate of medical insurance beneficiaries was twice or higher than non-beneficiaries. The higher the family monthly income, the more frequently they admitted. During one-year period, average admission days of the persons hospitalized were 22.5 days and males were hospitalized longer than females. The groups which were hospitalized longest were those between the ages of 40 and 49, medical insurance beneficiaries, the lowest income group and unemployed group. During one-year period, average admission days of 1,000 persons were 560 days and those of female were 661 days, more than those of male. The guoups which had the longest admission days were those above 70 years of age, the lowest income and unemployed groups. The medical insurance beneficiaries were three times or longer than non-beneficiaries. In logistic regression analysis of utilization of physician, significant independent variables were the 9-year and younger group(+), the 70-year and older group(+), acute illness episode(+), chronic illness episode(+), medical insurance beneficiary(+) and white collar workers(-). Acute and chronic illness episode(+), and medical insurance for government employees and private school teacher(-) were significant variables in analysis of utilization of pharmacy. In multiple regression analysis of the number of physician visits, siginificant variables were acute illnes episode(+), chronic illness episode(+), industrial, occupational and regional medical insurance beneficiary(+), white collar workers(-). Acute and chronic illness episode(+), and medical insurance beneficiary() were significant variables in analysis of the number of pharmacy visits. In logistic regression analysis of admission event, significant independent variables were the 9-year and younger group(+), the 70-year and older group(+), chronic illness episode(+), and medical insurance beneficiary(+).
Summary
A Study on the Effects of BCG Vaccination against Tuberculosis.
Pock Soo Kang, Sung Kwan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1982;15(1):33-46.
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In Korea BCG vaccination has been employed as the main control measure for tuberculosis since 1962. Recently, the protective efficacy of BCG against tuberculosis has been controversial worldwide. A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of BCG in Korea which has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (2.5%). The study subjects were children under the age of 14 years who were hospitalized and diagnosed as tuberculosis in three general hospitals in Taegu City during last 6 years (1975~1980). Among 416 hospitalized tuberculous patients, 314 cases were confirmed as to the presence or absence of the BCG scar. A control group was selected from the same hospital patients of the same period as the cases. The control group was other than tuberculous patients whose distribution of age, sex and residence were the same as the cases. The results obtained are as follows: For all forms of tuberculosis, the relative risk and the protective efficacy of BCG were 3.5 and 71.8%. The efficacy was higher among female than among male (78.6% vs. 65.8%). The efficacy was higher among the one year and above than among less than 1 year of age. For tuberculous meningitis, the relative risk and the protective efficacy of BCG were 3.9 and 74.3%. The efficacy was statistically significantly higher among female than among male (p<0.05). The relative risk and the protective efficacyt of BCG for uberculous meningitis combined with miliary tuberculosis and combined with pulmonary tuberculosis represented 6.9, 85.6%, and 7.4, 86.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the relative risk and the protective efficacy of BCG for miliary tuberculosis were 2.1 and 51.6%, and for pulmonary tuberculosis, 2.3 and 54.7%, respectively. From these results, it appears that BCG vaccination is an efficient preventive measure in Korea where tubercuuosis is prevalent. Thus the routine BCG vaccination should be continued.
Summary
An Epidemiological Study on the Industrial Injures of Textile Workers in Daegu Area.
Pock Soo Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1981;14(1):81-88.
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The present study was conducted to investigate the status of industrial injuries through a prospective study for a year from August 1980 to July 1981. The subjects were 15 textile industries which were selected by random sampling in Daegu. The results obtained are as follows: Annal over-all incidence rate of industrial injuries was 3.3 percent and the rate showed 6.7 percent in male and 2 percent in female. The rate showed decreasing tendency with larger scale of industries. By the age group, 15-19 age group was the highest as 49.3 percent. Age specific incidence rate of industrial injuries revealed highest as 4.7 precent among the group the group of 30 years old and over. By the years of service, 57.1 percent of the total cases belonged to the group less than 1 year and the rate revealed increasing tendency with shorter period of service. The highest frequency in industrial injuries was observed at the point of 3 hours after the beginning of the work in a day as 18.1 percent. Frequency of industrial injuries showed highest as 27.7 percent in winter time and showed 14 percent and 11.8% percent in January and August, respectively. By the cause of injuries, machinery accident showed the highest as 39.2 percent and followed by the accidents due to striking against object as 17.8 percent, fall of ground as 16.3% percent and hand tool as 7.2% percent. Frequency of injured parts of body was highest as 43.9 percent in fingers. The frequency was much higher in upper extremities (66.9%) than in lower extremities (17.6%). By the kind of injuries, laceration wound was highest as 35.7% percent and the next was superficial injury and contusion as 35.1 percent. By the duration of treatment, most of the cases was belonged to the group less than 1 month as 79.1 percent and the duration showed prolonging tendency with larger scale of industries.
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A Study on Smoking among Korean Rural Residents.
Pock Soo Kang, Sung Kwan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):77-86.
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The present study was conducted to investigate smoking status and the relationship of smoking to hypertension and disease 1,504 subjects who were 30-year-old age in Kyungsan Gunm Jyungpook province, during the period of 12 months from March 1978 to February 1979. The results obtained are summarized as follows : of 1,504 subjects, 52.2 percent smoked. The percentage of males smoking showed 84.8 and the percentage of females was 30.7. There were no statistically significant differences between the rate smoking and educational levels. Protestants demonstrated lower rates of smoking compared with other groups. Regarding the age started to smoke, 66.4 percent of male smokers and 16.9 percent of female smokers commenced smoking before the age of 19. In the regard to the average number of cigarettes smoked daily, 45.8 percent of male smokers consumed some 20 cigarettes and 24.1 percent of female smokers consumed some 10 cigarettes. 3.2 percent of male smokers smoked 40 or more cigarettes a day. Alcohol consumption was closely associated with smoking . 90.7 percent of male alcohol drinkers and 60.1 percent of female drinkers smoked. Cigarette smokers have higher rates of ailments than nonsmokers as a whole. The complaints of cough with sputum and shortness of breath revealed higher rates among smokers than among nonsmokers. Frequency of illnesses showed higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. Smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to suffer from chronic obstructive lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema. Abnormal systolic blood pressure(>160mmHg) and diastolic(>100) revealed significantly higher among smokers than among nonsmokers.
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health