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Min Hae Yeh 22 Articles
Professional Job Perception, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of Westerm Doctors and Oriental Doctors Practicing at Local Clinic.
Jong Yeon Kim, Sin Kam, Yune Sik Kang, Yong Kee Cho, Sang Won Lee, Dae Gu Jin, Soon Gi Ahn, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):44-50.
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OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted in order to investigate the professionalism, job stress and job satisfaction in western and oriental doctors in Korea. METHODS: The authors conducted a survey using a selfadministered questionnaire, conducted between August and September, 2001. The study subjects were 457 western doctors and 161 oriental doctors practicing at local clinics in Daegu City. RESULTS: For the professionalism scale, the score for 'belief in service to the public' of western doctors was significantly higher than that of oriental doctors (p< 0.05) whereas the scores for 'sense of calling to the field' and 'feeling of autonomy' were higher in oriental doctors (p< 0.01). For the job stress scale, the scores for 'work factor', and 'clinical responsibility/decision factor' of western doctors were significantly higher than those of oriental doctors (p< 0.01). Of the western doctors, 59.7% expressed satisfaction with their job as a doctor, 69.5% responded that the role of a doctor was appropriate to their aptitude, and 61.8% answered that they wouldn't consider other kinds of job even if offered. In case of oriental doctors, these responses were83.1%, 82.5%, and 82.3%, espectively. CONCLUSION: The job stress scores of western doctors were higher than those of oriental doctors, but the job satisfaction was lower. The reasons for the above results are not clear. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job stress and job satisfaction in doctors.
Summary
Professional Job Perception, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of Doctors Practicing in Local Clinic in Daegu City.
Dae Gu Jin, Sin Kam, Yune Sik Kang, Yong Kee Cho, Sang Won Lee, Jong Yeon Kim, Soon Gi Ahn, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):153-162.
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OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted in order to investigate professional job perception, job stress and job satisfaction in doctors. METHOD: The authors conducted a survey using a self-administered questionnaire, conducted between August and September, 2001. The study subjects were 457 doctors practicing at local clinics in Daegu City. RESULTS: For the professionalism scale, the score for 'sense of calling to field' and 'feeling of autonomy' were relatively high. Age, working hours per day, and perception of socioeconomic status significantly influenced the professionalism scale scores (p< 0.01). For the job stress scale, the scores for 'clinical responsibility/ decision' factor were the highest of all the surveyed factors. Working hours per day significantly influenced the job stress scores (p< 0.01). To investigate the overall relationship between the variables, the authors conducted a linear structural equation model analysis. The equation was statistically appropriate and a good fit. The job stress, and the professionalism factors, respectively influenced job satisfaction negatively and positively (T> 2.0). The working hours per day and status perception also influenced their job satisfaction (T> 2.0). CONCLUSION: To promote the job satisfaction of doctors, the development of coping tools and other intervention methods are needed to increase doctor's professional job perception and reduce their job stress. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job satisfaction and for its promotion with doctors.
Summary
Therapeutic Compliance and Its Related Factors of Lung Cancer Patients.
Si Hyun Nam, Sin Kam, Jae Yong Park, Sang Chul Chae, Moon Seob Bae, Moo Chul Shin, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(1):13-23.
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OBJECTIVES
To investigate the therapeutic compliance and its related factors in lung cancer patients. METHODS: The subjects of this study comprised 277 patients first diagnosed with lung cancer at Kyungpook National University Hospital between Jan 1999 and Sept 1999. Of these, 141 (50.9%) participated in the study by properly replying to structured questionnaires. The data was analyzed using a simplified Health Decision Model. This model includes categories of variables covering therapeutic compliance, health beliefs, patient preferences, knowledge and experience, social interaction, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The therapeutic compliance rate of the 141 study subjects was 78.0%. An analysis of health beliefs and patient preferences revealed health concern (p<0.05), dependency on medicine (p<0.05), perceived susceptibility and severity (p<0.05) as well as preferred treatment (p<0.01) as factors related to therapeutic compliance. Factors from the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical factors that were related to therapeutic compliance were age (p<0.01), monthly income (p<0.05), histological type (p<0.05) and clinical stage (p<0.05) of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve therapeutic compliance in lung cancer patients it is necessary to educate the aged, low-income patients, or patients who have small cell lung cancer or lung cancer of an advanced stage for which surgery is not indicated. Additionally, it is essential for medical personnel to have a deep concern about patients who have poor lifestyles, a low dependency on medicine, or a high perceived susceptibility and severity. Practically, early diagnosis of lung cancer and thoughtful considerations of low-income patients are important. By means of population-based education in a community, we may promote attention to health and enhance the early diagnosis of lung cancer.
Summary
Job Stress and Its Related Factors in South Korean Doctors.
Yune Sik Kang, Sin Kam, Sang Won Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):141-148.
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OBJECTIVE
To investigate the sources, extent and related factors in South Korean doctors. METHODS: The study subjects were 934 doctors in Taegu, Kyungpook Province, Korea(540 independent practitioners, 105 employed at hospitals and 289 residents in training). Information concerning job stress was obtained using a 9-item questionnaire. Information regarding related factors such as demographic characteristics(age, sex, marital status), perceptions on the socioeconomic status of doctors and working conditions(work time, on-call days per week) was also obtained by self-administered questionnaire during April and May, 2000. RESULTS: Major sources of job stress included clnical responsibility/judgement factor, patient factor and work loading factor. The job stress score of residents was the highest among three groups. The score was lower in older doctors. The score was low among those who thought doctors socioeconomic status was not good. The longer the work time, the higher the job stress score was. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to control for the mutual influence of independent variables. In regression analysis, the score of residents was higher than practitioners. Work time and socioeconomic status perception had negative effects on job stress score. CONCLUSION: The average job stress score of the doctors was high. Age, work type, working conditions and perceptions of socioeconomic status were found to besignificantly related to job stress score. Although the job stress of doctors is somewhat inevitable due to the nature of the doctor's job, control of work time, development of coping tools and other intervention methods are needed to reduce job stress of doctors. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job stress and reduce the job stress of doctors.
Summary
Therapeutic Compliance and Its Related Factors of Patients with Hypertension in Rural Area.
Sang Won Lee, Sin Kam, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh, Yun Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Hee Sook Oh, Moon Young Ahn, Pu Dol Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):215-225.
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OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic compliance and its related factors in the rural hypertensives. METHOD: A questionnaire survey and blood pressure measurement were performed to 3,876 residents of a rural area, and 660 hypertensives were selected as subjects of study. The study employed a hypothetical model which was composed of constructs from the health belief model and KAP model. The analysis techniques employed included contingency table analysis and structural equation modeling. RESULT: The proportion of those who were compliant to the treatment of hypertension was 44.2% of subjects. As the result of structural equation modeling, when patients had more favorable attitude toward treatment, higher perceived benefit, or lower perceived barriers to treatment, the therapeutic compliance was significantly higher(T>2.0). When patients had more knowledge about hypertension, or higher perceived severity of hypertension, the attitude toward the treatment of hypertension was more favorable significantly(T>2.0). And when patients had the support for treatment from family or neighbor, the attitude toward treatment was more favorable(T>2.0). When patients had experience of health education, they had more knowledge, higher perceived susceptibility of complication, perceived severity for hypertension, and perceived benefit of treatment, compare to patients without health education(T>2.0). CONCLUSION: In consideration of above findings, in order to improve the therapeutic compliance in the rural hypertensives, it would be necessary to change attitude, perception, knowledge about hypertension and its treatment, by various methods such as effective health education and programs for maintaining the supportive environment for hypertension treatment.
Summary
The Risk Factors for the Development of Hypertension in a Rural Area - An 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study.
Hee Sook Oh, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Yun Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Sang Won Lee, Moon Young Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):199-207.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to identify the risk factors related to the development of hypertension in a rural area. METHOD: Total of 3,573 subjects in Chung-Song County were interviewed and examined in 1996. The study cohort comprised 2,580 hypertension-free subjects aged above 20. One-year follow up was completed for 1,781 subjects(69.0%) in 1997. General characteristics(age, gender, education level, economic status, marital status), the family history of hypertension, diet, alcohol, smoking, coffee, stress, past history of oral contraceptive and menopausal status in female, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, baseline blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol were considered as risk factors. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model indicated that age(RR=1.50, 95% CI; 1.15-1.96), the family history of hypertension(RR=2.11, 95% CI; 1.04-4.26), waist-hip ratio(WHR) (RR=2.09, 95% CI; 1.15-3.79), and baseline systolic blood pressure(130-139/<120mmHg)(RR=3.34, 95% CI; 1.47-7.60) were significant risk factors associated with the development of hypertension above the borderline level in male. In female, age(RR=1.06, 95% CI; 1.03-1.09), change in menopausal status(no--> yes/no-->no) (RR=3.32, 95% CI; 1.01-10.87), baseline systolic blood pressure(120-129/<120mmHg: RR=2.00, 95% CI; 1.02-3.90)(130-139/<120mmHg: RR=2.64, 95% CI; 1.34-5.20) and baseline diastolic blood pressure(85-89/<80mmHg)(RR=4.09, 95% CI; 1.86-8.96) were identified as risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Age and high normal blood pressure were significant risk factors for the development of hypertension above the borderline level. In addition, the family history of hypertension and WHR in men, and the change of menopausal status in women might be significant risk factors in Korea.
Summary
Factors Related to the Intention of Participation in a Worksite Smoking Cessation Program.
Jae Hee Son, Sung Ah Kim, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Ki Su Park, Hee Sook Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):297-305.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to evaluate factors related to the intention of participation in a worksite smoking cessation program. METHODS: To explain the health behavior of participating intention in a worksite smoking cessation program, the health belief model(HBM) was used as study model, and 144 self-administered questionnaires were completed by electronic company workers. Variables of the health belief model were composed of perceived susceptibility to smokinginduced disease, perceived severity of smoking-induced disease, economical gain as perceived benefit of smoking cessation, and nicotine dependency as perceived barrier of smoking cessation. Variables of sociodemographics, smoking status, knowledge about adverse health effects of smoking, and cues to smoking cessation were used as modifying factors. RESULTS: Perceived severity(POR=1.99, 95%CI: 1.03-3.83), perceived benefit(POR=2.11, 95%CI: 1.07-4.17), and perceived barrier(POR=0.29, 95%CI: 0.11-0.76) were significant variables to the intention of participation in a worksite smoking cessation program in the logistic regression analysis. The perceived severity was significantly affected by knowledge about adverse health effects of smoking(POR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.23-3.84). The perceived barrier was significantly affected by education level(POR=3.66, 95%CI: 1.17-11.44), age to first cigarette (POR=0.32, 95%CI: 0.10-0.98), pack-years(POR=5.47, 95%CI: 2.37-12.61). To the perceived benefit, the model was not fitted. CONCLUSIONS: Our results found that counterplans improving the knowledge about adverse health effects of smoking, preventing early smoking, and decreasing smoking amount should be considered for an effective smoking ban policy.
Summary
Structural Relationships among Health Concern, Health Practice and Health Status of the Disabled.
Ki Soo Park, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Yun Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Jae Hee Son, Young Suk Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):276-288.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to determine the relationships among Health concern, health practice and health status of the disabled. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out for 1,662 disabled persons in Taegu city from April to July, 1997. RESULTS: Health concern had a significant and positive relationship with health practice(p<0.05) and health practice also had a significant and positive relationship with self-rated health status(p<0.05) in men and women. To determine the structural model of the Health concern, health practice, health status and sociodemographic variables, the covariance structural analysis was used. In men, age, economic status, medical security type, educational level and type of disability had significant direct effects on Health concern(T>2.0). Educational level and type of disability had significant direct effects on health practice(T>2.0). And Economic status, medical security type and job status had significant direct effects on health status(T>2.0). In women, economic status and educational level had significant direct effects on Health concern(T>2.0). However there was no variable which had a significant direct effect on health practice. Job status had a significant direct effect on health status(T>2.0). In men and women, health practice was significantly increased with increasing Health concern and the more health practice, the higher health status(T>2.0). CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that the institutional approach which improve the economic status of the disabled with understanding their behavior and attitude should be established to increase health status, in addition, the health policy for encouraging the disabled, such as health education, consulting and health promotion program, should be done.
Summary
A Study on Urinary Cadmium Concentration and Renal Indices of Inhabitant in an Abandoned Mine Area.
Jung Duck Park, Chan Byung Park, Byung Sun Choi, Eun Yong Kang, Yeon Pye Hong, Im Won Chang, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):424-439.
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Urinary cadmium is used as a sensitive indicator for internal Cd dose, and increased excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase(NAG), beta(2)microglobulin(MG) and total protein are useful indices for renal dysfunction by chronic exposure to Cd. The target group was 184 inhabitant(82 men and 102 women) in an abandoned mine area known as exposure to low level Cd. The control group was took 160 individuals(64 men and 96 women) in Cd not-exposed area. Urinary Cd concentration was significantly higher in the target group than the control. The geometric mean of urinary Cd for male was 2.56ng/l, 2.80ng/g creatinine and 2.50ng/S.G. in the target group and 1.19ng/l, 1.36ng/g creatinine and 1.17ng/S.G. in the control. For female 2.69ng/l, 3.94ng/g creatinine and 2.63ng/S.G. in the target group and 1.27ng/l, 1.97ng/g creatinine and 1.25ng/S.G. in the control, respectively. In addition, urinary Cd of the target group had affected by the period of residence and dietary habit for the rice and the vegetables from the target area. These findings suggest the chronic exposure to Cd of the target population. Mean excretion of urinary NAG, beta(2)MG and total protein were not significant between two groups. In the target group, urinary NAG activity and total protein were significantly correlated with urinary Cd, but beta(2)MG was not related. Urinary excretion of NAG, beta(2)MG and total protein were significantly increased in 10 than in <2 of urinary Cd level. In 2~10 group of urinary Cd level, the excretion of NAG significantly increased while not showed for beta(2)MG. In present study, urinary excretion of NAG was relatively sensitive than beta(2)MG in chronic exposure population to low level Cd.
Summary
Determinanats of Health Care Utilization of the Physically Disabled.
Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Sin Kam, Byung Yeol Chun, Jae Yong Park, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):323-334.
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To investigate determinants of health care utilization of the physically, disabled over 20 years old in age living in Taegu city, a self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out for 337 disabled persons with chronic illness from April to July, 1997. Health care utilization rate was 81.9%(69.l% for hospital or clinic and 12.8% for pharmacy). Marital status, job, health concern, and response to illness showed statistically, significant relationship with health care utilization(p<0.05). By, path analysis, job, economic status, medical security type and response to illness had a significant direct effect on health care utilization(p<0.05), however, health concern and regular source of care had an indirect effect. The reasons of no health utilization were due to economic problem(31.l%), no symptom(18.0%), inconvenience to seek care or no accompanying persons to be helped(14.8%), unseriousness of the severity of the illness(14.8%), too busy to be treated or no free time(8.2%), hopeless prognosis to be treated(6.6%) in order. In conclusion, it is recommended that the program for expanding medicaid, improving socioeconomic status by getting a job and health education to increase the health Concern toward physically disabled should be implemented to increase health care utilization rate.
Summary
Effect of cigareet smoking on air-conduction hearing threshold level in adult men.
Jin Seok Kim, Min Hae Yeh, Byung Yeol Chun, Kuck Hyeun Woo, Yune Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):285-292.
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To investigate the effect of smoking on the hearing threshold, l,887 adult male workers who visited health care center during the period l January 1996 - 31 July 1997 were selected. Air-conduction hearing threshold level, diastolic blood pressure(DBP), total cholesterol, fasting blood sugar(FBS), hematocrit and obesity, were measured. The data on age, occupation, and smoking were collected. Air-conduction hearing threshold in smoker was significantly higher than non-smoker in categories of 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 Hz(p<0.05). Mean values of PTA-low, PTA-mid, and PTA-high in smoker were also significantly higher than non-smoker(p<0.05). In multiple regression analysis, smoking is likely to play a significant role after controlling age, occupation, DBP, FBS, total cholesterol, hematocrit, and obesity,(p<0.05). The hearing threshold was significantly increased with increasing age(p<0.05), the manufacturing worker may have higher hearing threshold(p<0.05). The higher hematocrit and the more obese, the higher hearing threshold(p<0.05). However, DBP, total cholesterol and FBS were not significantly related with hearing threshold level. In conclusion, smoking was significantly related with the hearing threshold level in adult men.
Summary
Interns' Resident's Professional Job Perception and Its Effect to Their Job Satisfaction.
Yune Sik Kang, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(1):209-228.
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In order to investigate the professional job perception and job satisfaction of interns and residents and its related factors, the author conducted survey using self administered questionnaire for 2 months(August and September, 1996). The study subjects were 562 interns and residents who worked at one university hospital(tertiary hospital) and two general hospitals(secondary hospital) in Taegu, Korea. Among them, 297(52.8%) responded completely. The results were as follows ; Respondents thought that people component was most important, science and status components were next among professional value scales which meant the desirable attitudes required to conduct professional works. But, the score of professional value scales was generally high and not affected by other variables in multiple linear regression analysis. They seemed to have very normative and ideal perceptions about professional values. The score of professionalism scales, which were attitudinal and behavioral traits about professional job, of high grade residents was significantly higher than that of interns and lower grade residents. The score of reference to professional organization and autonomy factor were increasing significantly as the grade increased. Working conditions and perception for socioeconomic status of doctors influenced the score of professionalism scale significantly. It seemed that professional socialization was made during the training periods of interns and residents. Most of respondents answered that current socioeconomic status of doctors were middle and high strata but they responded that the socioeconomic status of doctors would fall in the future. They seemed to have a pessimistic thought about doctor's status. Generally the respondents thought that they were satisfied with doctor job and fit to the job, but 51.9% answered that if possible they would get other jobs. It seemed to reflect their critical thinking on doctors' status. Perceptions about socioeconomic status of doctors, professional value and professionalism influenced job satisfaction significantly. The interns and residents had high sense of calling to doctors and thought that doctors were socially important job. Generally they were satisfied with their job. Interns and residents had normative thoughts about the trait which competent doctors must have. During the training period, they seemed to have attitude and perception as a professional and to make professional socializations.
Summary
The Relationship between Change in Obesity Indices and Change in Serum Lipids in Adult Male Workers.
Young Ae Ha, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Sung Kook Lee, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(3):439-450.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between change in obesity indices and change in serum lipids in adult male workers. Two-hundred-eight adult male workers of an industry in Taegu city were followed-up from 1991 to 1995. Height, weight, circumferences of hip and waist, blood pressure were measured and serum lipids were analysed. Data on life style were obtained using self-administered questionnaires. Mean differences of anthropometric measurements between 1991 and 1995 were as follows; 1.63kg in weight, 3.61cm in waist circumferences, 4.23cm in hip circumferences, 0.52kg/m2 in BMI and -0.021 in WHR. Those of lipids were as follows; 15.09mg/dl in total cholesterol, 20.43mg/dl in triglyceride, 9.40mg/dl in HDL-cholesterol, 2.87 in MI-index(p<0.01) and 350mg/dl in LDL-cholesterol. The changed value of BMI and Katsura index were strongly correlated with that of total cholesterol(r=0.174, p<0.05), the changed value of BMI correlated with that of triglyceride(r=0.374, p<0.01) and the changed value of weight correlated with that of MI index(r=-0.173, p<0.05). The changed value of WHR was significantly correlated with that of total cholesterol(r=0.162, p<0.05), however, was not significantly correlated with HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and MI index. The changed value of weight, BMI and Katsura index were correlated with that of triglyceride(r=0.262, p<0.01; r=0.267, p<0.01; r=0.258, p<0.01) and the changed value of MI index(r=-0.143, p<0.05; r=-0.158; r=-0.144, p<0.01), adjusting the pattern of change in life style. The changed values of HDL-cholesterol and MI index between 1991 and 1995 in low WHR group were significantly higher than those in high WHR group(p<0.05, p<0.01), adjusting the baseline value of them. Similar pattern was observed when considering Katsura index. When stratifying by BMI value of 1991, in low BMI group, the changed value of HDL-cholesterol and MI index showed the same pattern as above, however the of triglyceride was statistically higher in obese group than in non obese group(p<0.05). In conclusion BMI might be a better indicator to predict serum lipids change than other obesity indices.
Summary
Determinant Factors for Expenditure of the Medical Insurance Program for Self-Employeds.
Sin Kam, Jae Yong Park, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(1):153-173.
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This study was conducted to examine the determinant factors for expenditure of the medical insurance program for self-employeds based on the analysis of 1991 "The Medical Insurance program for self-Employeds Statical Yearbook", and also similar yearbooks in the metropolitan and other provinces. The major findings are as follows: We have divided benefits into these four components such as the utilization rate for out-patients. expenses per claim for out-patients as paid by the insurer, utilization rate for in-patients, and the expenses per claim for in-patients as paid by the insurer, in order to examine the determinant factors for it. The results of the study revealed the following findings: in urban areas, the supply of medical care had more influence on the benefits than other demographic and economic variables, while, in county areas, both the supply of medical care and the rate of those aged over 65 affected the provision of benefits. The determinant factors for financial balance of the medical insurance program for self-employeds are: first, the determinant factor for administrative expenses was the number of households. The more the number of household, the less the administrative expenses per the insured. This shows that the economy of scale is being. And so, the administrative district must be taken into consideration in the incorporation of small regional medical societies and should be re-organized for more efficient management. Second. in urban areas. the supply of medical care had more influence on utilization rate and expenses per claim as paid by insurer, and therefore it is necessary to control it. In county areas the supply of medical care and the rate of those aged over 65 raised the utilization rate and expenses per claim as paid by insurer. For the financial stability of county areas. a common fund for medical care for the aged and expansion of finance stabilization fund would be necessary. But, in county areas, it would be unnecessary to control the supply of medical care because it was much more insufficient than in urban areas. The vitalization of public health facilities must be carried out in county areas, for they reduced benefits. Since the more insured in a single household, the less the utilization of the medical insurance program, benefits for habilitation at home should be given consideration. The law of majority and the economy of scale were applied here, and therefore the incorporation of regional medical societies must be taken into consideration. In integrating regional medical societies, it would be absolutely necessary to review the structural differences among all regional medical societies, the medical demand of each region, and also the local characteristics of each region.
Summary
Cytologic screening for cervical cancer and factors related to cervical cancer.
Yong Jae Jeon, Chi Young Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(3):428-440.
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This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rate of cervical cancer and to investigate its risk factors. 5,417 asymptomatic married women were screened from March, 1984 to December, 1990 in Taegu city. Of 5,417 examinees, 3,817 (70.46%) were normal, 1,542 (28.7%) showed inflammatory change, 51 (0.94%) were dysplasia and 7 (0.13%) were carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinomas. The prevalence of abnormal finding (dysplasia, carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma) was 1,070 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of dysplasia was 940 per 100,000 and that of carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma was 130 per 100,000. Age-adjusted prevalence rate for abnormal finding adjusted with standard population of Taegu city was estimated to be 850 per 100,000. The prevalence of cervical cancer was significantly increased with age (P<0.05). The prevalence of cervical cancer was significantly decreased with age at marriage and educaitonal level (P<0.05). The history of induced abortion and the number of pregnancies were significantly associated with the prevalence of cervical cancer (P<0.05), whereas, the number of parity was not. Age at marriage was significantly associated with the prevalence of cervical cancer after stratification by age (P<0.05). However, the level of education, parity, induced abortion, number of pregnancies were not significant. Inflammation and human papiloma virus infection were associated with cervical cancer with odds ratio of 13.48(95% confidence interval 7.80~23.40) and 474.29 (95% confidence interval 196.80~1143.10), respectively. In conclusion, for early detection of cervical cancer it should be recommended to perform mass cytological screening. In particular, regular and periodic cytologic screening, starting at age 25, for cervical cancer should be recommended for those women who have frequent cervical inflammation and for those women married before age of 20.
Summary
A case-control study for risk factor related to hypertension.
Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Sung Kook Lee, Byung Yeol Chun
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(2):221-231.
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A case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors (Part of job, Obesity, Alcohol, Smoking, Milk, Salt, and Family history) for hypertension. We selected 330 hypertension cases (male; 247, female; 83) and 1,336 controls (male; 887, female; 449) from employees in Taegu city from 1 May to 30 November, 1988. Data was analysed using a logistic regression model. Statistically Significant elevated odds ratio were noted for alcohol (odds ratio=3.23), obesity (odds ration=2.31), salt (odds ratio=1.75) in male (P<0.05) and those in female were noted for alcohol (odds ratio=16.49), family history (odds ratio=3.70), obesity (odds ratio=1.74) and salt (odds ratio=1.73) (P<0.05). Statistically significant reduced odds ratio was noted for milk in both sexes (odds ratio=0.69 for male and 0.65 for female) (P<0.05) and the dose-response relationship between milk intake and hypertension was confirmed (P<0.05). Therefore, milk seems to be preventive factor for hypertension. Smoking was not significantly associated with hypertension in both sexes. The part of job was significantly associated with hypertension in female by simple analysis (P<0.05) but the relationship was disappeared when multivariate analysis (logistic regression analysis) was done.
Summary
Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Lymphocytes of Some Workers Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium.
Dong Hoon Shin, Nung Ki Yoon, Suk Kwan Suh, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(3):358-368.
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To investigate the possibility of utilizing of sister chromatid exchange(SCE) analysis in lymphocytes as an indicator which could evaluate the effects of mutagenicity after in vivo exposure to hexavalent chromium, this study was conducted using some of chromium plating workers occupationally exposed to hexavalent chromium, chromium trioxide (CrO3) in Taegu city. The study population was 12 Cr platers with perforation of nasal septum, 12 Cr platers without perforation of nasal septum and 20 controls. The SCE in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the subjects was analyzed and blood chromium concentration was estimated using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (IL 551) equipped with furnace atomizer (IL 755). The mean SCE frequencies for Cr platers with and without perforation of nasal septum were statistically higher than those for control. The difference in SCE frequencies by age, smoking habits were not statistically significant both in Cr platers and controls. There was no difference in SCE frequencies by career of Cr platers workers. In Cr platers, the correlation between the mean SCE frequencies and chromium concentration in blood was not statistically significant. Using the transformation y=(sum SCE)1/2+(sum SCE+1)1/2, when the data was studied by multiple regression, it appeared that the influence of the occupation was the most important. Age, smoking, occupation and CrB(blood chromium concentration) together explain only 32.3% of interpersonal variation on SCE. The results in this study suggest that a genetic risk due to occupationally exposure to hexavalent chromium is clearly inferable and thus, SCE analysis in human lymphocytes may be used indicator of biological toxic effects of chromium. Further, populatio analysis studies are required before SCE frequency can be used as a mutagenic indicator in human population.
Summary
Cohort Infant Mortality Rate of Gunwee and Hapchun Counties and an MCH Center in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Min Hae Yeh, Byung Yeol Chun, Sung Euk Cho, Hyun Kim, Han Jin Chung, Jae Yeon Cho, Jung Hub Song, Gui Yeon Kim, Jang Rak Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):87-97.
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No abstract available.
Summary
Birth Registration Rate and Accuracy of Reported Birth Date in Rural Area.
Jung Han Park, Chang Yik Lee, Jang Rak Kim, Jung Hup Song, Min Hae Yeh, Seong Eok Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):70-81.
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To measure the birth registration rate and the validity of birth registration data in rural area, all of the 4,014 married women under 49 years of age who had not been sterilized in Gunwee county of Kyungpook province were followed by Myun health workers for 2 years from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1987 and 766 births were detected. All of the birth registration records of Myun offices were reviewed on September 30, 1987 and 944 births which occurred within the above mentioned period were found. Actual birth date obtained by follow-up study were compared with the birth date on registration card. Among 766 births detected by follow-up study, 576 births(75.2%) which were reported within 6 months after birth were ascertained on the official registration records and 96 births(12.5%) were not found on the records although mother stated that the birth was registered. The registration rate within legal due date was 61.3% among 576 births detected by follow-up study and also ascertained on the official records. The registration rate within legal due date was lower in mothers under 20 years of age and above 35 years and in mothers who had only primary education. It was decreased as the birth order increased. The registration rate was higher in births occurred from October to March than births occurred from April to September. All of the births of 7 neonatal deaths were not reported. The registered birth date was consistent with the actual birth date in 78.0%. Birth date on record was earlier than the actual birth date in 6.8% and later in 15.3%. The consistency rate was lower in mothers above 35 years of age(54.5%), and in infants of 4th birth order and above(56.3%). The rate was increased as the maternal education level increased. The rate of boys was higher than that of girls. A higher percentage(17.4%) of infants born in March was registered with earlier date than the actual birth date and most of these registered birth dates were lunar calendar date. This might be related with the age for entering the primary school. The study findings revealed that the birth registration rate within legal due date and accuracy of report have been increased in recent years, but the infant mortality rate derived from the birth registration seems to be very inaccurate. It is suggested to let the medical personnel who delivered the baby report the birth by mail directly to the current address of parent while infants delivered at home without professional attendant may comply with the present registration system.
Summary
A Follow-up Study of Fertility and Pregnancy Wastage of Women in Rural Area.
Jung Han Park, Sin Hyang Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Gui Yeon Kim, Min Hae Yeh, Seong Eok Cho, Jae Yeon Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):21-30.
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To measure the fertility rate and pregnancy wastage of women in rural area, 3,780 married women under 50 years old who were not sterilized either woman or husband in Gunwee county were followed up for 2 years. Seventeen Myun health workers visited these women periodically to check the status of their family planning practice and menstruation. Pregnant women were interviewed for their past obstetric history and followed up to the time of delivery. Family planning was practiced in 51.6% of the 6,826 women-years observed during the period from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1987. Pregnancy, abortion and delivery covered 7.6% of the observed women years and family planning was not practiced in 36.5% of the women-years. When sterilized women at the beginning of the study were included, the family planning practice rate was 72.1% which was slightly higher than the national family planning practice rate. However, 28% of the women of 30-39 years old had not practiced family planning although they had 2-3 children and they used more such less effective methods as safe-period method and condom than the women of 20-29 years old. Overall pregnancy rate was 14.3 per 100 woman-years. Women of 25-29 years old had the highest pregnancy rate of 27.4 per 100 woman-years. Pregnancy wastage including spontaneous and induced abortions and still births was 22.0% of all pregnancies and it increased with the age of women; 15.8% in women less than 30 years old and 43.7% in women of 30 years and over. Women who terminated the pregnancy with induced abortion had more pregnancies, more previous induced and spontaneous abortions and shorter pregnancy interval than those women who terminated with live birth. Pregnant women terminated with a live birth had received 4.2 prenatal cares on the average. Eighty-five percent of deliveries occurred at a medical facility and 15% at home which was substantially lower home delivery rate than the other rural area of Korea. This may be due to the effects of the demonstration project for the primary health care in 1970s in Gunwee county. These findings suggest that family planning service in rural area should be strengthened by promoting the use of more effective contraceptive method among women over 30 years of age.
Summary
A Study on Maternity Aids Utilization in the Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning.
Min Hae Yeh, Sung Kwan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):57-95.
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this study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of service by maternity aids concerning maternal and child health in improving simultaneously infant mortality, contraception and vital registration among expectant mothers in rural Korea, where there is less opportunity for maternal and child health care. It is unrealistic to expect to solve this problem in rural Korea through professional persons considering the situation of medical facilities and the sicioeconomic condition of residents. So, we intended to adopt a system of services by maternity aids who were educated formally among indigenous women. After the women were trained in maternal and child heath, contraception, and registration for a short period, they were assigned as a maternity aids to each village to help with various activities concerning maternal and child health, for example, registration of pregnant women, home visiting to check for complications, supplying of delivery kits, attendance at delivery, persuasion of contraception, and invitation for registration and so on. Mean- while, four researchers called on the maternity aids to collect materials concerning vital events, maternal child health, contraception and registration, and to give further instruction and supervision a s the program proceeded. A. Changes of women's attitude by services of maternity aid. Now, we examined to what extent such a service system to expectant mothers affected a change in attitude of women residing in the study area as compared to women of the control area. 1) In the birth and death places, there were no changes between last and present infants, in study or control area. 2) In regard to attendants at delivery, there were no changes except for a small percentage of attendant (8%) by maternity aid in study area. But, I expect that more maternity aids could be used as attendants at delivery if they would be trained further and if there was more explanation to the residents about such a service. 3) Considering the rate of utilization of sterilized delivery kit, I an sure that more than 90 percent would be used if the delivery kit were supplied in the proper time. There were significant differences in rates between the study and the control areas. 4) Taking into consideration the utilization rate of the clinic for prenatal care and well baby care, if such facilities were installed, it would probably be well utilized. 5) In the contraception, the rate of approval was as high as 89 percent in study area as compared to 82 percent in the control area. 6) Considering the rate of pre-and past-partum acceptance on contraception were as much as 70 percent or more, if motivation to use contraception was given to them adequately, the government could reach the goals for family planning as planned. 7) In the vital registration, the rate of birth registration in the study area was some what improved compared to that of the control area, while the rate of death registration was not changed at all. Taking into account the fact that the rate of confirmation of vital events by maternity aids was remarkably high, if the registration system changed to a "notification" system instead of formal registration system, it would be improved significantly compared to present system. B. Effect of the project. Thus, with changes in the residents' attitude, was there a reduction in the infant death rate? 1) It is very difficult problem to compare the mortality of infants between last and present infants, because many women don't wont to answer accurately about their dead children especially the infants that died within a few days after birth. In this study the data of present death comes from the maternity aides who followed up every pregnancy they had recorded to see what had happened. They seem to have very reliable information on what happened in first few weeks with follow up visitits to check out later changes. From these calculation, when we compared the rate of infant death between last and present infant, there was remarkable reduction of death rate for present infant compare to that of last children, namely, the former was 30, while the latter 42. The figure is the lowest rate that I have ever heard. As the quality of data we could assess by comparing the causes of death. In the current death rate by communicable disease was much lower compare to the last child especially, tetanus cases and pneumonia. 2) Next, how many respondents used contraception after birth because of frequent contact with the maternity aid. In the registered cases, the respondents showed a tendency to practice contraception at an earlier age and with a small number of children. In a comparison of the rate of contraception between the study and the control area, the rate int he former was significantly higher than that of the latter. What is more, the proportion favoring smaller numbers of children and younger women rose in the study area as compared to the control area. 3) Regarding vital registration, though the rate of registration was gradually improved by efforts of maternity aid, it would be better to change the registration system. 4) In the crude birth rate, the rate in the study area was 22.2 while in the control area was 26.5. Natural increase rate showed 15.4 in the study area, while control area was 19.1. 5) In assessment of the efficiency of the maternity aids judging by the cost-effect viewpoint, the workers in the Medium area seemed to be more efficiency than those of other areas.
Summary
A Comparison of Side for Termination, and Continuation Rate for Various Kinds of Oral Contraceptive Pill.
Sung Kwan Lee, Doo Hie Kim, Min Hae Yeh, Soon Ho Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 1970;3(1):51-96.
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No abstract available.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health