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Mi Jang 1 Article
Influence of Smoking on Blood Cadmium Concentration in University Students.
Joo Youn Shin, Jong Han Lim, Sin Goo Park, Jee Na Lee, Mi Jang, Chung Song Huh, Dae Hee Kang, Yun Chul Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(3):225-231.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to examine the influence of smoking on the blood cadmium concentration in university students. METHODS: The study included 300 university students. A questionnaire interview was used to collect data. The urine cotinine and blood cadmium levels were measured as biological exposure indices. The data were analyzed using t-tests ANOVA and ANCOVA. RESULTS: The median value of blood cadmium concentration was equal in both males and females (0.8microgram/liter). This level was relatively low in comparison with the reference value suggested by WHO (2001). ANCOVA showed that smoking related variables, urine cotinine and smoking amount, were significantly associated with the blood cadmium level (P=0.004, 0.015). However, the values with regard to traffic related air pollution were not significantly associated with the blood cadmium level. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is an important source of nonoccupational cadmium exposure in young people. The Blood cadmium level is at least 10% higher in active smokers than in passive or nonsmokers. The level of urine cotinine can be used as an indicator of non-occupational exposure of respirable cadmium due to smoking, as there is a good correlation bestween smoking amount and the urine cotinine level.
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health