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Masoumeh Najaf Gharebelagh 1 Article
Household Overcrowding in Iran, a Low-middle-income Country: How Major of a Public Health Concern Is It?
Leila Jansar Hosseini, Ali Hussein Samadi, Abraha Woldemichael, Masoumeh Najaf Gharebelagh, Satar Rezaei, Enayatollah Homaie Rad
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(1):73-80.   Published online January 11, 2021
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Household overcrowding (HC) can contribute to both physical and mental disorders among the members of overcrowded households. This study aimed to measure the status of HC and its main determinants across the provinces of Iran.
Data from 39 864 households from the 2016 Iranian Household Income and Expenditures Survey were used in this study. The Equivalized Crowding Index (ECI) and HC index were applied to measure the overcrowding of households. Regression models were estimated to show the relationships between different variables and the ECI.
The overall, urban, and rural prevalence of HC was 8.2%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively. The highest prevalence of HC was found in Sistan and Baluchestan Province (28.7%), while the lowest was found in Guilan Province (1.8%). The number of men in the household, rural residency, the average age of household members, yearly income, and the household wealth index were identified as the main determinants of the ECI and HC.
The study demonstrated that the ECI and HC were higher in regions near the borders of Iran than in other regions. Therefore, health promotion and empowerment strategies are required to avoid the negative consequences of HC, and screening programs are needed to identify at-risk families.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Social determinants of health and diabetes: Results from a cohort study in Iran
    SeyedJalal Hashemi, Mehrnoosh Jasemzadeh, Nader Saki, Bahman Cheraghian, Sara Sarvandian, Ali Montazeri, Maedeh Raeisizadeh, Marzieh Araban
    Asian Journal of Social Health and Behavior.2023; 6(2): 86.     CrossRef
  • Inadequate housing and pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review
    Ju-Yeun Lee, Namhee Kwon, Ga-yeon Goo, Sung-il Cho
    BMC Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health