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Kyoo Sang Kim 9 Articles
The Effect of Working Noise Exposure and Military Background on the Hearing Threshold.
Kyoo Sang Kim, Ho Keun Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):137-146.
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OBJECTIVES
Impaired hearing is a prevalent occupational hazard, not only in industry, but also in the armed forces. In military life, noise has unusual characteristics, and constitutes a serious hazard to hearing. The aim of this study was to analyze the hearing threshold data in order to compare the hearing loss among shipyard workers, representing different workers, and a military service background. METHODS: A cross-sectional audiological survey, combined with a questionnaire study, was conducted on a stratified random sample of 440 shipyard workers, with long-term exposure to noise. The employees were divided into four groups, according to their working and military service backgrounds, in relation to their exposure to noise. RESULTS: As expected, the working and military noise exposure group (Group I) had significantly poorer hearing than the other groups. The high frequencies (2-8 kHz) showed the greatest difference in terms of poorer hearing in both ears. The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was highest in Group I. A logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the dependence of the NIHL in relation to age, smoking, drinking, working duration, ear protection, past history of ear diseases, and working and military service backgrounds, on the noise exposure. The important factors found to be related to the NIHL, in relation to noise exposure were: age, work duration, and working and military service backgrounds. The adjusted odds ratio estimates for NIHL in the right ear were 4.5 times greater (95% CI 1.7-11.6) for the military noise exposed group, and 7.9 times greater (95% CI 2.0-31.3) for the working noise exposed group than in the controls. The hearing thresholds at the pure-tone average and 4 kHz were significantly increased with age and work duration with both the working and military service backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: From these results, specific preventive programs were planned, which should be assessed by epidemiological surveillance of the military noise exposed population.
Summary
Evaluation of Puretone Threshold Using Periodic Health Examination Data on Noise-exposed Workers in Korea .
Kyoo Sang Kim, Yangho Kim, Jung Keun Choi, Jung Sun Park, Young Han Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(1):30-39.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was carried out to evaluate hearing impairment judgement and to investigate the differences in various diagnostic criteria for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among workers who required for close observation (C). METHODS: Out of 731,029 workers who had taken the specific periodic health examination in 1994, we used the audiometric data on 37,999 workers (C) eliminating the employees who had previous otologic problems. Many investigators have being using different criteria for the evaluation of hearing impairment. In this study, we used the criteria of early (1989-1994), current, compensation for NIHL in Korea, 2-, 3-, 4-divided classification and hearing loss at 4,000 Hz and compared the evaluation results. RESULTS: The prevalences of C and workers who had occupational disease (D1) diagnosed for NIHL were 11.1 % and 0.44 %. There were significant difference in the prevalences of C and D1 depending on different province of Korea. Pure tone averages (PTAs) were not appropriately applied in their evaluation. 97% of workers whom we studied on were below the level of mild hearing loss judged by ISO standard. However, there were wide variations in the prevalence rate of mild hearing loss by diagnostic criteria. Thus, there were different judgements in determining the degree of NIHL depending on which diagnostic criteria were utilized. PTAs were found 20.54 (Rt) and 20.74 (Lt) when the method of 3-divided classification was applied for audiometric data. The degree of hearing impairment of the left ear was more severe than that of right ear. The prevalence of normal hearing threshold below 20 dB was 75.4% and the range of difference in both ear was below 10 dB. Right sided hearing threshold levels were 21.08 dB (500 Hz), 18.44 dB (1,000 Hz), 22.09 (2,000 Hz) and 52.36 dB (4,000 Hz). There was typical high frequency loss (C5-dip at 4,000 Hz) above 30 - 40 dB in normal hearing level. The increasing trend in hearing threshold level was gradually decreased by the increase of PTAs. The difference between PTAs and threshold at 4,000 Hz was about 10 dB. CONCLUSIONS: We could found that PTAs in the previous examination were not appropriately evaluated. This study revealed that they did not use unique criteria for managing the workers of NIHL. For the prevention of NIHL, it was found that the quality control on diagnosis and comprehensive management program were required, especially for those of hearing loss (C).
Summary
Contact dermatitis among male workers exposed to metalworking fluids.
Youngwoo Jin, Jun Young Lee, Euna Kim, Seung Hyun Park, Changho Chai, Yonghyu Choi, Kyoo Sang Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(2):381-391.
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In an epidemiological study of metal workers exposed to metalworking fluids(MWF), the prevalence time of evoultion, seasonal occurrence and clinical type of contact dermatitis were investigated. Composinal analyses of MWF with HPLC, dermatological examination and two consecutive questionnaire surveys were conducted. Study population was divided into two groups ; workers contact to cutting oil and workers contact to rust preventive oil. In the analysis of MWF, aliphatic hydrocarbons, having 12-20 carbons, was most common composition(49.04%) of cutting oil otherwise, major contents (90.99%) of the rust preventives oil were aliphatic hydrocarbons composed of 6-9 carbons. The frequency (point prevalence) of contact dermatitis(CD) was 7(12.7 per 100 subjects) in the dermatological examination of 55 workers. As the result of second survey for contact dermatitis, cumulative prevalence of oil working full-time and recent 1 year prevalence in two groups were 28.0, 16.7 and 15.1, 12.5 per 100 subjects. There were no difference in the prevalence of CD by oil, age, oil contact duration. Summer is the most common evolution season in workers exposed to cuttiogs, but not in workers exposed to rust preventive oil. Major clinical type of CD was erythematous papules in both groups. It presents the importance of preventive measures that 51.1% suffer from contact dermatitis had medical care at their own expense, and 47.1% of them felt serious about their contact dermatitis. From the fact that 68.6% think cotton gloves protective apparatus, we emphasize the need for health education.
Summary
Medical Surveillance of Glass Fiber Workers in Korea.
Se Wi Lee, Kyoo Sang Kim, Jung Keun Choi, Yang Ho Kim, Seong Kyu Kang, Kyuong Suk Choi, Young Hahn Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):187-198.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The industrial use of MMMF(man-made mineral fibers), has been increasing, particularly since the banning of most asbestos products. Fibrous minerals can cause health abnormalities currently associated with occupational exposure to glass fiber. This study was conducted to evaluate health risks of glass fiber manufactory workers within the country. we examined questionaries, physical examination including auscultation, chest x-ray, pulmonary function test for 488 male workers, to go through their dermal itching symptoms and respiratory evaluation. we had the results as follows. 1. In 45% of the workers itching had been expressed at their entrance. At that time we was investigating, 18.5% had itching, and most of them complained it when they fall asleep and night. The frequent itching site is waist and groin, upper and lower extremity in order, and it had been expressed mainly during summer and winter. 2. As the results of ventilatory functions test, 6.0% were obstructive type, 1.0% were restrictive type. so, glass fiber exposures should be controlled or elimination by protective devices in the workplace. 3. The means of FVC, FFV1, FFV1% were in normal range. As the comparison of ventilatory functions by age groups, MMF was decreased significantly for the group, 50 years old and more than other groups. And the comparison by the serving periods at glass fiber producing factory, MMF was decreased for the workers had worked for 11-15 years. Therefore, MMF be more sensitive index in the evaluation of ventilatory impairments caused by glass fiber workers.
Summary
Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness in Workers Exposed to Isocyanates.
Kyeong Sook Choi, Kyoo Sang Kim, Byung Soon Choi, Jung Keun Choi, Se Hui Lee, Young Hahn Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):103-112.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We studied the association of nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness with general characteristics, exposure concentration, respiratory symptoms, chest x-ray findings, past histories and pulmonary function. We determined bronchial hyperresponsiveness by methacholine challenge test. And we conducted a respiratory symptom questionnaire and performed spirometry on 111 workers occupationally exposed to isocyanates in various industries. About 21.6% of subjects had bronchial hyperresponsiveness. No significant differences were observed between the hyperresponsive and non-responsive group with respect to age, sex, employment period, height, and smoking histories cough and breathlessness were significantly associated with the bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The hyperresponsive group had more experience of bronchitis and asthma in the past than the non-responsive group. The lower FEV1 and FEV1 % were closely related with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Bronchial hyperrespoosiveness seems to be associated with some of respiratory symptoms, past histories and pulmonary function parameters in workers exposed to isocyanates.
Summary
Factors Relating to Quitting in the Small Industries in Incheon.
Yeon Soon Ahn, Jaehoon Roh, Kyoo Sang Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):795-807.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out from 1993 to 1994 in the small industries in Incheon. The objectives of this study was in order to estimate the quitting rate, to identify its relating factors and to propose effective quitting management policy in the small industries. The results were as follows; 1. The quitting rate of 266 study workers was 42.1%(l12 workers). 2. Age, working duration, position, marital status were significant difference between the quitting group and the non-quitting group. 10 the quitting group, mean age was young, working duration was short, general employees and unmarried workers were many compared with the non-quitting group. 3. In the industry characteristics, total assets, total sales, sales per person, establishment duration and occupational health and safety status were significant difference between the quitting group and the non-quitting group. In the quitting group, total assets, total sales and sales per person were little, establishment duration of company was short and occupational health and safety status were poor compared with the non-quitting group. 4. In the quitting group, worker's response to employer's disposal about health and safety was more passive and the relation to employer with employee was significantly poor compared with the non-quitting group. 5. Multiple logistic regression analysis of quitting against family income per person, working duration, relation to employer with employee, occupational health and safety status in industry, worker`s response to employer's disposal about health and safety and sales per person was done. Working duration, occupational health and safety status, worker`s response to empolyer's disposal about health and safety were significant eiplainatory variables for quitting. Above results showed that the quitting rate was high and it was significant difference between the quitting group and non -quitting group according to characteristics of workers and of industries. Especially, it suggested that working duration, occupational health and safety status and worker's response to employers disposal about health and safety were significant quitting factor. Therefore, it should be reflected in the quitting management and the policy of steady employment.
Summary
Job Analyses of Health Care Managers in Group Health Care System.
Kyoo Sang Kim, Chong Yon Park, Jaehoon Roh
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):777-792.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
For developing the Group Health care system, health managers' job structure were analysed in the aspects of content, amount, and process. As a trial research, data were collected by a standardized job analysis table to 6 doctors, 40 nurses, and 11 industrial hygienists of Group Health Care System. Health care managers were performing complex and intellectual jobs such as health education for workers, managing health care, conference as well as more simple jobs like as filling diary. Especially, job was consisted of general job and health care management job in the proportion of 1:2.18. The major general job were data management related with the health statistics, and major health care management jobs were managing health care, health counselling, environmental management of working sites. Each specific jobs were required differentiated intellectual capacity, creativity, autonomy, psychic stress, and physical work; most respondents perceived that health care management jobs should require more inputs than general jobs Additionally job satisfaction and perceived need on specific job items were analysed. Results of this research, suggested through the field experiences in working sites, should be considered for improving the Group Health Care System.
Summary
The blood pressure level and sexual maturity in the children at puberty.
Kyoo Sang Kim, Soon Young Lee, Ill Suh, Chung Mo Nam, Sun Hwa Jee
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(3):347-358.
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The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the blood pressure level and their sexual maturity and physical growth in the children at puberty. For this purpose, we estimated the blood pressure, physical growth and sexual maturity of the boys of 335 and girls of 373 who are in the middle schools which are located in Kang-wha County, KyungKi-Do. Both systolic and diastolic pressure were measured twice. Such physical growth as height, body weight, skin fold thickness, waist circumference, hip circumference and arm circumference were measured. The sexual maturity was estimated according to the classification of Tanner's 5-phase-sexual-maturity; in boys, their pubic hair development phase; in girls, their pubic hair and breast development phase and the menstrual experience. In the phase of the pubic hair development, the boy's sexual maturity was distributed into this; the 1 st 56.4%, the 2nd 29.3%, the 3rd 9.9%, the 4th 4.1% and the 5th 0.3%. While the girls sexual maturity was distributed into this : the 1 st 20.5%, the 2nd 34.9%, the 3rd 30.6% the 4th 12.6% and the 5th 1.3% in the phase of the pubic hair development, and the 1 st 0.8%, the 2nd 13.7%, the 3rd 36.2%, the 4th 18.8% and the 5th 30.5% in the phase of the breast development. This indicated that the girls sexual maturity was higher than those of the boys. The girls menstrual experience rate accounted to the 58.2%. In order to see the relationship between the children's sexual maturity and blood pressure level, we regress blood pressure level on physical growth(i.e., height, BMI) and sexual maturity. Sexual maturity in treats as dummy variables. As the result of this analysis, the boys' sexual maturity has nothing to do with the blood pressure either systolic or diastolic. But the girl's systolic pressure was statistically significant; the 9% of the physical growth, the 5% of the pubic hair development and the 4% of the breast development in sexual maturity was explained. In the girls' diastolic pressure, only their pubic hair development was statistically significant; the 7% of the physical growth and the 7% of the pubic hair development in the diastolic was explained and the 5% of the physical growth in the diastolic Korotokoff phase was explained, especially, the girls experienced menstruation, their systolic and diastolic pressure were significantly high(P<0.01). Conclusively, in the first grade children attending middle schools who are in the early process of the sexual development, the sexual maturity was not related to blood pressure level, on the other hand, the blood pressure level of the girls who are more sexual development than those of the boys' have something to do with sexual maturity and physical growth.
Summary
Perception and attitude toward group health management and service system for small and medium industries in Inchon.
Chong Yon Park, Jae Hoon Roh, Kyoo Sang Kim, Kyung Jong Lee, Young Hahn Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(1):86-95.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate perception and attitude toward Group Health Management and Services System for Small and Medium Industries, a survey using self-administered questionnaire was conducted to a part of industries in Inchon, at October 1992. Major dependent variables were perception, attitude, and practice related with Group Health Management and Service System; these variables were measured by 3-point Likert like scale consisted of 7, 5, and 5 items, respectively. Data were collected in 149 industries, 72.7% out of 205. Perception was slightly high, 1.25; attitude was some positive, 1.46; and practice was some passive, 0.94. Major determinants of perception, attitude, and practice were sex and age of industry's health manager; perception influenced upon attitude, and perception and attitude had positive effect upon practice. To activate Group Health Management and Service System, it is necessary to develop education and promotion programs for industry's health managers of small and medium industries.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health