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Keun Sang Kwon 5 Articles
Serum Gamma-glutamyltransferase Levels and the Risks of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Healthy Men: A 2-year Follow-up.
Joo Youn Shin, Jong Han Lim, Dai Ha Koh, Keun Sang Kwon, Yong Kyu Kim, Hwan Chul Kim, Yeui Cheol Lee, Ju Hyoung Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Sung Bin Hong, Shin Goo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(4):353-358.
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OBJECTIVES
An increase in the serum gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT) concentration has been regarded as a marker of alcohol drinking or liver disease. Some reports, however, have suggested that the serum GGT may be a sensitive and early biomarker for the development of prediabetes and diabetes. In this study we investigated whether serum GGT is a reliable predictor of the incident impaired fasting glucose (IFG), including diabetes. METHODS: We performed a prospective study for two years (2002-2004). We analyzed the periodic health examination data from a total of 4,711 men. The examinations were done in the years 2002 and 2004. The analyzed data included a self-questionnaire, a physical examination and the laboratory results. Both IFG and diabetes were defined as a serum fasting glucose concentration of more than 100 mg/dL and 126 mg/dL, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 738 cases (15.7%) of incident IFG and 13 cases (0.3%) of diabetes occurred. The mean serum GGT concentrations were quite different between the normal (38.0 IU) and incident IFG groups (50.3 IU), and the incident diabetes group (66.0 IU) (p <0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the relative risks for incident IFG or diabetes across the baseline GGT categories (<10th, 10th-20th, 30th-40th, 50th-60th, 70th-80th and >90th percentile) were 1.0, 1.172 (0.769-1.785), 1.107 (0.725- 1.689), 1.444 (0.934-2.232), 2.061 (1.401-3.031) and 2.545 (1.784-3.631) (p-value for trend: <0.001). The risks significantly increased with increasing levels of GGT for 2 years; when comparing the increased groups (<10%, 10- 20%, >20%) versus the decreased over 20% group of GGT, the risks for IFG or diabetes were 1.334 (1.002-1.776), 1.613 (1.183-2.199) and 1.399 (1.092-1.794). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that serum GGT concentrations within its normal range may be an early predictor of the development of IFG and diabetes. As serum GGT is a relatively inexpensive test and a reliable marker, it might have important implications in public health promotion.
Summary
Mercuric Chloride Induces Apoptosis in MDCK Cells.
Ju Hyoung Lee, Jung Ho Youm, Keun Sang Kwon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(3):199-204.
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OBJECTIVES
Mercury is a hazardous organ-specific environmental contaminant. It exists in a wide variety of physical and chemical states, each of which has unique characteristics for the target organ specificity. Exposure to mercury vapor and to organic mercury compounds specifically affects the CNS, while the kidney is the target organ for inorganic Hg compounds. METHODS: In this study, mercury chloride (HgCl2) was studied in a renal derived cell system, i.e., the tubular epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line, which has specific sensitivity to the toxic effect of mercury. MDCK cells were cultured for 6-24 hr in vitro in various concentrations (0.1-100 M) of HgCl2, and the markers of apoptosis or cell death were assayed, including DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activity andwestern blotting of cytochrome c. The influence of the metal on cell proliferation and viability were evaluated by the conventional MTT test. RESULTS: The cell viability was decreased in a time and concentration dependent fashion: decreases were noted at 6, 12 and 24 hr after HgCl2 exposure. The increases of DNA fragmentation were also observed in the concentrations from 0.1 to 10 M of HgCl2 at 6 hr after exposure. However, we could not observe DNA fragmentation in the concentrations more than 25 M because the cells rapidly proceeded to necrotic cell death. The activation of caspase-3 was also observed at 6 hr exposure in the HgCl2 concentrations from 0.1 to 10 M. The release of cytochrome c from the mitocho-ndria into the cytosol, which is an initiator of the activation of the caspase cascade, was also observed in the HgCl2-treated MDCK cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the activation of caspase-3 was involved in HgCl2-induced apoptosis. The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol was also observed in the HgCl2-treated MDCK cells. These findings indicate that in MDCK cells, HgCl2 is a potent inducer of apoptosis via cytochrome c release from the mitochondria.
Summary
Community Based Study for Stress and It's Related Factors.
Gyung Jae Oh, Jeong Mi Lee, Sang Sun Kil, Keun Sang Kwon
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):125-130.
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OBJECTIVES
This study evaluated the stress of community residents using the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-60, as an instrument of stress measurement. METHODS: The study included 2100 residents, aged 20 and over, living in three areas, a large city, a medium sized city and a rural area, between June and September 2001. A questionnaire interviewing method was used to collect data. The data were analyzed using a t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: In this study, the degree of stress, as measured by the GHQ-60, was shown to be significantly higher in the following categories: females, people over 60 years old, people engaged in the primary industries and labor work, low incomes, the divorced and the bereaved, people who received no more than an elementary education, people who suffer from chronic diseases and non-exercisers. A factor analysis suggested that there were three factors of social dysfunction factors; psychosomatic symptom, and depression and anxiety. The social dysfunction factors was statistically significant for the groups described above. The factor of psychosomatic symptoms was statistically significant in the rural residents, and in the groups described above. The depression and anxiety factor was statistically significant in the large city residents, people aged between 20-29 years, students, unmarried persons, university graduates and those having suffered from chronic diseases. From the multiple linear regression analyses, chronic disease, exercise, gender and income, proved to be significant stress related factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that special attention should be given to the management of the chronic invalided, non-exercisers, females and small income earners, in order to maintain and promote the psychological health of residents in a community.
Summary
Effect of Glutathione on Lead Induced Modulation of NO Synthesis in RAW 264.7 Cell.
Sae Ron Shin, Gyung Jae Oh, Keun Sang Kwon, Wook Hee Yoon
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):269-274.
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OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the effect of glutathione(GSH) on lead induced modulation of nitric oxide(NO) synthesis, and to examine how lead modulates NO production in macrophages. METHODS: This study was observed in a culture of RAW 264.7 cells, which originated from a tumor in a Balb/c mouse that was induced by the Abelson murine leukemia virus. The compounds investigated were lead chloride, N-acetyl-cystein(NAC), and Buthionine Sulfoximine(BSO). RESUJLTS: ATP synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells was unchanged by each lead concentration exposure in a dose dependent manner. The NO synthesis was decreased when exposed to lead(PbCl2) concentration 0.5 micro M. The presence of 300 micro M NAC, used as a pretreatment in the culture medium, caused the recovery of the lead induced decrease in NO synthesis, but in the presence of 300 micro M BSO as a pretreatment, there was no recoverey. Pretreatment with NAC and BSO had no affect on ATP synthesis at any of the lead concentrations used. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that GSH has a protective effect toward lead toxicity, and suggested that the inhibition of NO production in macrophage due to lead toxicity may be related to cofactors of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase)
Summary
Effects of Mercury Chloride on Nitric Oxide Syntheses in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophage and EMT-6 Cell.
Keun Sang Kwon, Dai Ha Koh, No Suk Ki, Jung Ho Youm
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(2):369-380.
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The effects of treatment with mercury chloride on the nitrite and nitrate syntheses were observed in peritoneal macrophages from Balb/c mice and EMT-6 cells in vitro. The cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium(DMEM) with cytokines. Amounts of nitrite and nitrate in the culture media after 24 and 36 hours of culture were about 2-fold, and 3-fold of those measured after 12 hours respectively. There were very close associations between the amounts of nitrite and nitrate measured in the culture media according to culture time. The survival rate of peritoneal macrophages was significantly decreased by mercury chloride added into the media in dose-dependent manner, however the survivals of EMT-6 cells were not influenced by mercury chloride concentration in media. Nitrite and nitrate syntheses were dose-dependently decreased by mercury chloride added in culture media. ATP synthesis also decreased in EMT-6 cells by mercury chloride. These results reported here suggest that the disorder of cell mediated immunity by mercurials could be related to the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis which seems to be caused by the inhibition of ATP synthesis.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health