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Kang Sook Lee 15 Articles
Awareness and Attitude Toward Suicide in Community Mental Health Professionals and Hospital Workers.
Soung Nam Kim, Kang Sook Lee, Seon Young Lee, Jae Hee Yu, A Rum Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(3):183-189.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.3.183
  • 5,769 View
  • 131 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to evaluate community mental health professionals and hospital workers attitude and awareness towards suicide. METHODS: This study investigated 264 community mental health professionals and 228 hospital workers. SOQs (Suicidal Opinion Questionnaires) were used from July 2007 to September 2007. After a factor analysis for the attitude towards suicide, the items on ethics, mental illness, religion, risk, and motivation were included in the subsequent analysis. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the attitude towards suicide according to religion, age, educational background, the marriage status, the economic position, and different professional licenses. Hospital workers' view was different from the community workers'. The hospital workers judged that suicide was due to mental illness, and suicide was high for the people in a special environment and who lacked motivation, which caused them to fall in a dangerous situation. For the lower educational group, they thought that suicide was attributable to mental illness. The awareness for suicide was significantly higher in the group with a postgraduate education, unmarried people, mental health professionals and the persons who had concern and experience with suicide. The factors that had an influence on the awareness of suicide were the items of mental illness, religion, risk and motivational factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that the factors to increase the awareness and attitude for suicide were the experience of increased education and case management of suicide. Therefore, education dealing with suicide and reinforcement of crisis management programs should be developed.
Summary

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Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Attitude toward Suicidal Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study among Health-Care Professionals in Northwest Malaysia
    Aimi Izwani Mohd Nazli, Yit Tyse Ooi, Dandaithapani Thyagarajan, Ruzita Jamaluddin
    Malaysian Journal Of Psychiatry.2022; 31(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • The Attitude of Psychiatric and Non-psychiatric Health-care Workers Toward Suicide in Malaysian Hospitals and Its Implications for Training
    Ching Sin Siau, Lei-Hum Wee, Sapini Yacob, Seen Heng Yeoh, Tassha Hilda binti Adnan, Jamaiyah Haniff, Komathi Perialathan, Aziman Mahdi, Abu Bakar Rahman, Choon Leng Eu, Suzaily binti Wahab
    Academic Psychiatry.2017; 41(4): 503.     CrossRef
  • The Relations among Attitude, Competency, and Appropriateness of Work on Student Suicide in Health Teachers
    Jae Soon Yoo, Dallong Han, Chul-Gyu Kim
    The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education.2016; 22(4): 473.     CrossRef
  • Preparation to Perform Activities of Suicide Prevention according to Professional Type
    Kyongran Park, Gyungjoo Lee, Min Kwon, Mijung Yeom, Soo Yang
    Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing.2015; 29(1): 40.     CrossRef
  • A Preliminary Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experience Regarding Suicidal Behavior among Mental Health Workers in Korea
    Hye-Jin Kim, Jun-Won Hwang, Jin Hyeong Jhoo, Haak-Seon Kim, Semi Hwang, Kanguk Lee
    Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association.2015; 54(3): 338.     CrossRef
  • Case study of posts before and after a suicide on a Swedish internet forum
    Michael Westerlund, Gergö Hadlaczky, Danuta Wasserman
    British Journal of Psychiatry.2015; 207(6): 476.     CrossRef
  • Investigation of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experience Regarding Suicidal Behaviors among Psychiatric Residents in Korea : A Cross-Sectional Study
    Kyunglin Lee, Kanguk Lee, Junwon Hwang, Sang Woo Hahn
    Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association.2015; 54(4): 444.     CrossRef
  • Cross-sectional study of attitudes about suicide among psychiatrists in Shanghai
    Yumei Jiao, Michael R Phillips, Yourong Sheng, Guojun Wu, Xianyun Li, Wei Xiong, Liwei Wang
    BMC Psychiatry.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Awareness and, Attitude of Suicide in High School Students
    Sung-Ho Song, In-Sun Kwon
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2012; 13(6): 2680.     CrossRef
  • Influencing Factors on Suicide Ideation among High School Students
    Sung-Ho Song, Chang-Yeol Kang, Tae-Yong Lee, In-Sun Kwon
    Journal of agricultural medicine and community health.2011; 36(1): 1.     CrossRef
Association of Current and Past Smoking with Metabolic Syndrome in Men.
A Rum Hong, Kang Sook Lee, Seon Young Lee, Jae Hee Yu
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(3):160-164.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.3.160
  • 5,450 View
  • 50 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between past smoking and the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. METHODS: From January 2007 to December 2007, a total of 3,916 over thirty years old male health screen examinees were divided into the nonsmoking, smoking, ex-smoking groups. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the criteria of the NCEP ATP (Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program). Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of three or more of the following: a blood pressure > or = 130/85 mmHg, a fasting glucose level > or = 110 mg/dL, a HDL-C (High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) level < 40 mg/dL, a triglyceride level > or = 150 mg/dL and, a waist circumference men > or = 102 cm, but a waist to hip ratio > 0.90 was used as a surrogate for the waist circumference. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, alcohol consumption and, exercise in the smokers, for the ex-smokers compared with the nonsmokers, the odds ratio (OR) of a lower HDL cholesterol level (< 40 mg/dL) was 1.29 (95% CI=1.03-1.61) in the smokers, the ORs of a higher triglyceride level were 1.35 (95% CI=1.09-1.66) in the ex-smokers and, 2.12 (95% CI=1.75-2.57) in the smokers, and the OR of a waist to hip ratio was 1.25 (95% CI=1.03-1.52) in the ex-smokers. When there were over three components of metabolic syndrome in the ex-smokers and smokers as compared with the nonsmokers, the odds ratio against the risk of metabolic syndrome were 2.39 (95% CI=1.00-6.63) and 2.37 (95% CI=1.02-6.46), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that there is an association of smoking with metabolic syndrome in men.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Assessing the risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes in relation to Hookah smoking: Evidence from a cohort study in Southern Iran
    Nahid Shahabi, Shideh Rafati, Hadi Eshaghi Sani Kakhaki, Farshid Soleimani, Fatemeh Zamaninasab, Zahra Saboohi, Azim Nejatizadeh, Sara Dadipoor
    Health Science Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The relationship between smoking cigarettes and metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study with non-single residents of Seoul under 40 years old
    Sun Woo Kim, Ho Jun Kim, Kyungha Min, Hobeom Lee, Sung-Ha Lee, Sunyoung Kim, Jong Seung Kim, Bumjo Oh, Liou Y. Sun
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(8): e0256257.     CrossRef
  • Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Triglyceride to HDL-Cholesterol Ratio according to Smoking Status in Korean Men Aged 60 Years and Over
    Hyun Joe
    Korean Journal of Clinical Geriatrics.2020; 21(2): 110.     CrossRef
  • Relationship of the hs-CRP Levels with FBG, Fructosamine, and HbA1c in Non-diabetic Obesity Adults
    Hye Jong Oh, Cheol Won Choi
    The Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science.2018; 50(2): 190.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship between Smoking Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Male Health Check-up Examinees over 40 Years of Age
    Gwang-Yul Hwang, Yoon-Jeong Cho, Rae-Ho Chung, Sung-Hi Kim
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2014; 35(5): 219.     CrossRef
  • Gender Differences in the Relationship between Alcohol Use Behaviors and Metabolic Syndrome - Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V 2010 -
    Ji Young Ryu, Dae-Hwan Kim
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2013; 30(1): 83.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Lifestyle Factors on Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults
    Mee Young Im, Young-Ran Lee, Suk Jung Han, Chung-Min Cho
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2012; 23(1): 13.     CrossRef
  • Alcohol use behaviors and risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean middle-aged men
    Jinhee Kim, Su-Kyung Chu, Kyungjoo Kim, Ju-Ryoung Moon
    BMC Public Health.2011;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Smoking, C-reactive Protein, and the Metabolic Syndrome
    Hyo-Jin Chon, Dong-Eun Lee, Hye-Rim Kwak, Yun-Jun Yang, Eon-Sook Lee, Jun-Hyung Lee, Yeong-Sook Yoon
    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2011; 2(2): 89.     CrossRef
  • Economic burden of injuries in South Korea
    Seung-Ji Lim, Woo-Jin Chung, Woo-Hyun Cho
    Injury Prevention.2011; 17(5): 291.     CrossRef
  • Correlates of the Metabolic Syndrome Among a Sample of Women in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico
    Ana Patricia Ortiz, Erick Suárez, Giovanna Beauchamp, Josefina Romaguera, Marievelisse Soto-Salgado, Cynthia M. Pérez
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.2010; 8(3): 235.     CrossRef
The Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Health Checkup Examinees.
Jae Hee Yu, Kang Sook Lee, Seon Young Lee, A Rum Hong, Yong Sang Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(6):407-412.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.6.407
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  • 42 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of nonalcoholic fatty liver and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: This study was conducted to investigate the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver and cardiovascular risk factors for adult men (n=2976) and women (n=2442) who were over 19 years old, after excluding the HBsAg(+) or anti-HCV(+) patients and the men and women with increased alcohol intake (men: 40 g/week, women: 20 g/week). RESULTS: Compared with the normal liver subjects, the nonalcoholic fatty liver subjects showed a significantly increased frequency of abnormal systolic blood pressure (> or =120 mmHg), fasting blood sugar (> or =100 mg/dL), total cholesterol (> or =200 mg/dL), triglyceride (> or =150 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (<40 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (> or =130g m/dL) and abdominal obesity in men, and all these measures were significantly increased in the women except for abnormal HDL cholesterol. After adjusting for the body mass index, age, smoking, exercise and a nonalcoholic liver, the odds ratios of an abnormal waist hip ratio were 1.35(95% Confidence Interval=1.05-4.72) in the mild fatty liver, 1.61(1.19-2.18) in the moderate fatty liver, 2.77(1.57-4.92) in the severe fatty liver compared with a normal liver. The adjusted odds ratios for abnormal fasting blood sugar were 1.26(1.03-1.53) in the mild fatty liver, 1.62(1.27-2.06) in the moderate fatty lliver and 1.77(1.12-2.78) in the severe fatty liver. The adjusted odds ratios for abnormal triglyceride were 1.38(1.11-1.72) in the mild fatty liver, 1.73(0.33-2.24) in the moderate fatty liver and 1.91(1.17-3.10) in the severe fatty liver of men. Adjusted odds ratios for abnormal triglyceride were 1.50(1.04-2.15) in mild, 1.71(1.07-2.68) in moderate, 1.81(0.69-4.38) in severe fatty liver of women. CONCLUSIONS: The nonalcoholic fatty liver subjects had more cardiovascular risk factors compared with the normal liver subjects. Thus, prevention and treatment of the nonalcoholic fatty liver is necessary by lifestyle modifications such as restriction of alcohol intake, no smoking, exercise and adequate eating habits.
Summary

Citations

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  • Insulin sensitizers for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Zeynel Abidin Ozturk
    World Journal of Hepatology.2014; 6(4): 199.     CrossRef
  • Leitura A Influência da Composição Corporal e Idade no Perfil Hepático e Prostático de Homens do Município de Flores da Cunha/RS
    F. Nascimento, E. Borba, A. Philipi, A.C. Guimarães, R. Boff, P. Spada, A. Coitinho, C. Funchal, C. Dani
    Ciência em Movimento - Biociências e Saúde.2013; 15(30): 9.     CrossRef
  • Recent advances in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Onpan Cheung, Arun J Sanyal
    Current Opinion in Gastroenterology.2010; 26(3): 202.     CrossRef
  • Recent advances in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Onpan Cheung, Arun J Sanyal
    Current Opinion in Gastroenterology.2009; 25(3): 230.     CrossRef
Comparison of Job Stressors between Managers and Employees in White-Collar Workers of an Electric Company.
Jin Kook Tak, Kang Sook Lee, Hyun Sook Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(2):160-168.
  • 2,277 View
  • 33 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was intended to investigate the differences of job stressors between managers and low level employees among white-collar workers. Another objective of this study was to examine whether the effects of job stressors on mental health differ between the two groups. METHODS: Data was obtained from 204 managers and 251 low level employees who were employed in white-collar jobs. Fourteen job stressors and seven job stress variables were measured. RESULTS: Among the 14 job stressors, role overload, job insecurity, and work-family conflict were higher job stressors for the manager group whereas role conflict, work-aptitude incongruity, participation in decision making, and promotion problems were higher job stressors for the low level of employees. There were no differences in job stress scores between the two groups. However, differences in the effects of job stressors on job stress were found between the two groups. For the manager group, job insecurity, work-aptitude incongruity, and work-family conflict significantly affected in explanation of job stress whereas for the low level employees, role underload, peer satisfaction, and environmental problems significantly explaining the job stress variables. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences in job stressors between managers and low level employees among white-collar workers. Additionally there were differences in the effects of job stressors on job stress between the two groups.
Summary
The Effect of Strengthening Exercise Program on the Physical Activity, Activities of Daily Living, Social Behavior and Functional Performance of the Elderly in a Home for the Aged.
Hyun Sook Kim, Chee Kyung Chung, Kang Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(2):107-115.
  • 2,711 View
  • 48 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the effects of a strengthening exercise program on the physical activity, activities of daily living(ADL), social behavior and functional performance of the elderly in a home for the aged. METHODS : We administered a survey questionnaire that consisted of questions to establish general characteristics, health habits and status, physical activity, ADL, and social behavior. Additionally, a physical fitness and functional performance examination was performed on subjects who were 65 years old or older. Study subjects numbered 33 in the experimental group and 35 in the control group. For intervention, we used a strengthening exercise program of the upper and lower limbs for 12 weeks(5 times/week) using dumbbells and lead-packed weights. RESULTS: After the strengthening exercise program, the scores of physical activity and social behavior were significantly higher than the control group and the before exercise measurements. Moreover, the variables of functional performance were significantly higher than in the control group or the before exercise records. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a strengthening exercise program can improve the score of physical activity, ADL and social behavior, as well as decrease the time(sec) of functional performance of the elderly in a home for the aged.
Summary
Risk Factors for Cerebrovascular Disorders in Koreans.
Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim, Chun Bae Kim, Tae Yong Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Kang Sook Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh, So Yeon Ryu, Kee Ho Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):157-165.
  • 2,201 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To identify the risk factors of cerebrovascular disorders(CVD) in Koreans using a nested case-control study. METHODS: The cohort consisted of beneficiaries who had taken health examinations of the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC cohort: 115,600 persons) in 1990 and 1992 consecutively. Four hundred and twenty five (425) cases were selected following the validation of diagnosis among 2,026 reported CVD (I60-I68) inpatients during the year from 1993 to 1997. Controls were matched (1:1) with age and gender of the cases among inpatients without CVD during the same period. The source of data in this study were the files of the 1990 health examinations and the 1992 health questionnaires, as well as an additional telephone survey undertaken from March to November 1999. RESULTS: In a bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for total CVD were hyperglycemia and hypertension. Unrespectively, the odds ratio of ex-smoker was significantly lower than that of those who had never smoked. The risk factors for ischemic CVD also were hyperglycemia and hypertension. However, only blood pressure was found to be a risk factor for hemorrhagic CVD. Hypercholesterolemia was not a risk factor for total CVD, ischemic CVD, and hemorrhagic CVD. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the most important risk factor for CVD (including subtype) in Koreans was hypertension.
Summary
A Nested Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean.
Ki Soon Kim, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Tae Yong Lee, Kang Sook Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):149-156.
  • 2,838 View
  • 136 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To elucidate risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males. METHODS: A nested case control study was conducted among a Korea Medical Insurance Cooperation(KMIC) cohort composed of 108,802 males. The cases included 246 male patients who were admitted to hospital due to coronary heart diseases from 1993 to 1997 (I20-25 by ICD) and whose diagnosis was confirmed by the protocol by WHO MONICA Project(1994). The control group was composed of 483 patients selected by frequency matching considering age and resident area from an inpatient care group without coronary heart disease during the same period. For study cases and the controls, the results of a health check-up in 1990 and a questionnaire on life style in 1992 were received through the KMIC. Some additional information was collected by telephone interviews during October 1999. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio(OR) of coronary heart diseases among past smokers and current smokers as compared to non-smokers were 1.94(95% CI : 1.14-3.31) and 2.20(95% CI : 1.35-3.59), respectively. The OR among persons who drank 4 cups or more of caffeinated beverages such as coffee or tea daily as compared to persons who drank one cup for 2-3 days was 2.56(95% CI : 1.07-6.12). The OR among persons with high normal BP and stage 3 hypertension against normotension were 2.51(95% CI : 1.44-4.37) and 5.08(95% CI : 2.38-10.84). The OR among persons whose blood cholesterol were 240 mg/dL or more against lower than 200mg/dL was 2.24(95% CI : 1.43-3.49). CONCLUSION: Smoking, drinking of excessive caffeinated beverages, hypertension and high blood cholesterol were proven to be significant risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males.
Summary
Analysis of Cancer Screening Recommendations by Physicians for Various Types of Cancer.
Yong Mun Park, Won Chul Lee, Keun Sang Yum, Jung Wan Koo, Hyeon Woo Yim, Kang Sook Lee, Hoon Kyo Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):99-108.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to examine the present status of cancer screening recommendations(beginning age, interval, recommended screening methods, etc.) by physicians and analyze the association between physician's characteristics and the content of their recommendations. METHODS: Data were collected from March 1 to April 30 of 1997, and 373 physicians who were from different hospital settings all over Korea were interviewed by telephone about their screening recommendations for stomach, cervical and breast cancer for those who provided cancer screening services. RESULTS: For stomach cancer screening, respondents recommended that cancer screening begin at 40 years of age(57.8%), with a 1 year interval(77.2%), and by gastrofibroscopy (86.2%). For cervical cancer screening, respondents recommended that cancer screening begin at 25 years of age(42.0%), with a 1 year interval(67.8%), and by using a Pap smear(100.0%). For breast cancer screening, respondents recommended that cancer screening begin at 35 years of age(38.7%), with a 1 year interval(57.3%), and by mammography (97.3%). CONCLUSIONS: To establish appropriate cancer screening recommendations for Korea, it may be useful to consider the above results concerning medical care providers.
Summary
The Awareness and Countermeasures against Harmful Effect of Passive Smoking in Korean Adults.
Hong Seok Sim, Kang Sook Lee, Hyun Sook Hong, Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):91-98.
  • 2,291 View
  • 54 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study is to evaluate the awareness, attitude, practice and the countermeasures against passive smoking in Korean adults. METHODS: By self-administered questionnaires, we assessed the knowledge, attitude, behavior for passive smoking and the countermeasure for reduction of it's harmful effects in 289 men and 238 women. RESULTS: The subjects that have heard about passive smoking were 96.8% in total and well known were 26.4% of current smoker, 56.6% of ex-smoker, and 14.8% of non-smoker(p=0.001). The irritative symptom from passive smoking was the most frequent in non-smokers and the most common place where exposed to passive smoking was public place. For attitude against passive smoking in 'no smoking allowed area', ex-smokers were the most active to recommend to stop smoking. And for opinion about establishment of 'no smoking allowed area', the restriction by law was the best acceptable method in smokers, exsmokers, and nonsmokers. In marking of 'no smoking allowed area', 69.9% of smokers answered no smoking, but in non-marking area only 6.3% stop smoking. When smokers were recommended to stop smoking, the more subjects stop smoking with good feeling in marking area, but the less in non-marking area. The factor associated the high awareness of passive smoking were aged(OR=1.07, 1.03-1.12), men(OR=4.34, 2.32-8.46). The persons who have known well about passive smoking had good attitude and behavior to prevent of harmful effect of passive smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that education program would be necessary to reduce the passive smoking.
Summary
The Accuracy of ICD codes for Cerebrovascular Diseases in Medical Insurance Claims.
Jong Ku Park, Ki Soon Kim, Chun Bae Kim, Tae Yong Lee, Kang Sook Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Sunhee Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh, Kwang Wook Koh, So Yeon Ryu, Kee Ho Park, Woonje Park, Seungjun Wang, Hwasoon Lee, Yoomi Chae, Hyensook Hong, Jin Sook Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):76-82.
  • 3,250 View
  • 148 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We attempted to assess the accuracy of ICD codes for cerebrovascular diseases in medical insurance claims (ICMIC) and to investigate the reasons for error. This study was designed as a preliminary study to establish a nationwide surveillance system. METHODS: A total of 626 patients with medical insurance claims who indicated a diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases during the period from 1993 to 1997 was selected from the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation cohort (KMIC cohort: 115,600 persons). The KMIC cohort was 10% of those insured who had taken health examinations in 1990 and 1992 consecutively. The registered medical record administrators were trained in the survey technique and gathered data from March to May 1999. The definition of cerebrovascular diseases in this study included cases which met one of two criteria (Minnesota, WHO) or 'definite stroke' in CT/MRI finding. We questioned the medical record administrators to explain the error if the final diagnoses were not coded as stroke. RESULTS: The accuracy rate of the ICMIC was 83.0% (425 cases). Medical records were not available for 8.2% (51 cases) due to the closing of hospitals, the absence of a computer system or omission of medical record, etc. Sixty-three cases (10.0%) were classified as impossible to interpret due to insufficient records in 'major clinical symptoms' or 'neurological deficits'. The most common reason was 'to meet review criteria of medical insurance benefits (52.9%)'. The department where errors in the ICMIC occurred most frequently was the department for medical insurance claims in the hospital. CONCLUSION: The accuracy rate of the ICMIC was 83.0%.
Summary
The Risk Factors Associated with Increased Blood Pressure, Sugar and Lipids in Multi-phasic Health Checkup Examinee.
Kang Sook Lee, Sang Deog Cho, Hyun Sook Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):69-75.
  • 2,006 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: By the questionnaire, the informations of education level, monthly income, alcohol consumption and smoking habit were obtained. Height, weight and blood pressure(BP) were measured by a trained nurse. The level of fasting blood sugar(FBS), total cholesterol, hight-density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride were tested by enzyme method about a group of 2888 males and 1696 females ages over 20 who had never taken the medication for hypertension. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, stepwise multiple regression, correlation analysis were performed using SAS package program. RESULTS: There were significant differences among age groups in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index(BMI), FBS, triglyceride and cholesterol except HDL-cholesterol. The risk factors associated with systolic and diastolic BP significantly in male were BMI, age, alcohol intake, but in female BMI, age. Smoking habit had a significant negative correlation with BP in both sex. In the group of mild hypertension (> or =140 mmHg or> or =90 mmHg defined by JNC-VI) and hypertension (> or =160 mmHg or > or = 95 mmHg defined by WHO), the percent of diabetes (FBS> or =140 mg/dl), hypercholesterolemia (> or =240 mg/dl), and hypertriglyceridemia (> or =200 mg/dl) were signifcantly higher compared with normal group in male and female. BMI, and alcohol consumption had a positive correlation with FBS, total cholesterol and triglyceride. Smoking had a positive correlation with cholesterol and triglyceride but negative correlation with HDL-cholesterol in male. The educational attainment had a negative correlation with BMI, FBS, total cholesterol and triglyceride in female. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that drinking, smoking, and BMI and lower educational level were associated with hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, but further evaluation was needed by prospective intervention study.
Summary
Association of Hypertension with Cluster of Obesity, Abnormal glucose and Dyslipidemia in Korean Urban Population.
Kang Sook Lee, Jung A Kim, Jung Il Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(1):59-71.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To examine the association of hypertension with cluster of obesity, abnormal glucose and dyslipidemia in Korean urban population, we conducted this cross-sectional study among 3027 men and 2127 women age 20-85 years who visited a prevention center between May 1991 and June 1995 for a multiphasic health check at St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul. By the self-administered questionnaire, the informations of educational attainments, monthly income, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and physical excercise level were obtained. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured by a trained nurse. The fasting blood sugar(FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride were tested by enzyme method. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was calculated by 'total cholesterol - HDL cholesterol - triglyceride/5'. For testing the differences of cardiovascular risk factors between hypertension and normotension group, t-test and x2 test were performed and for the age adjusted odds ratios of hypertension in persons with obesity, abnormal glucose, and dyslipidemia compared with normal, logistic regression was performed by using SAS pakage programme. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Age, weight, body mass index, blood glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride of hypertension group in men and women were significantly higher than normotension group, but height and high density lipoprotein of hypertension group only in women significantly lower than normotension group. The frequency of obesity (body mass index > or =25 kg/m2), abnormal glucose (> or = 120 mg/dl), hypercholesterolemia (> or =240 mg/dl), lower HDL cholesterol (<45 mg/dl in women only), higher LDL cholesterol (> or =160mg/dl), and hypertriglyceridemia (> or =250 mg/dl) in hypertension group of men and women were significantly higher than normotension group. 2. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were negatively correlated with hight, but positively with age, weight, BMI, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride in men and women. And BMI was positively correlated with fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride but negatively with HDL cholesterol. 3. The odds ratios of hypertension were as follows in men and women : among persons who were obese compared with those nonobese, 2.53 (95% Confedence Intervals [C.I.] 2.08-3.07) and 2.22 (95%C.I. 1.71-2.87); among persons who were abnormal glucose compared with those normoglycemic, 1.43 (95%C.I 1.13-1.82) and 2.01 (95%C.I 1.36-2.94); and among persons who were dyslipidemia (hypercholesterolemia or lower HDL cholesterol or higher LDL cholesterol or hypertriglyceridemia) compared with those normal lipid, 1.59 (95%C.I 1.30-1.95) and 1.51 (95%C.I 1.16-1.96). After combined more than one risk factor, the odds ratios were increased. Among persons with cluster of obesity, abnormal glucose, and dyslipidemia, the odds ratio of hypertension was 2.25 (95%C.I 1.47-3.37) in men and 3.02 (95%C.I 1.71-5.30) in women. In conclusion, it was suggested that hypertension was associated with cluster of obesity, abnormal glucose, dyslipidemia in this Korean urban population.
Summary
Case-Control Study on Effects of Alcohol Intake and Smoking to Gastritis of Korean Adult Men.
Yun Chul Hong, Chung Yill Park, Won Chul Lee, Kang Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(3):238-246.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We performed case-control studies for the 1, 138 Korean adult men. According to the results of UGIS, we classified the gastritis into the erosive gastritis, superficial gastritis, and hypertrophic gastritis. And then, we selected controls among non-gastritis group after matching. Alcohol intake and smoking history was obtained by questionnaire. And we observed the effects of alcohol intake and smoking to the each gastritis. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Smokers had a risk of getting erosive gastritis more than twice (2.6) than non-smokers and there was dose-response relationships between smoking and erosive gastritis. Alcohol intake, however, had no significant relation with the erosive gastritis. 2. Both smoking and alcohol intake had no significant relations with superficial gastritis. 3. Smoking had no significant relation with hypertrophic gastritis, but dividing between those who drank more than 100gm of alcohol a week and those who drank less, we obtained the odds ratio of 3. 4 suggesting that there existed a significant relation between moderate or excessive alcohol intake and hypertrophic gastritis. 4. Among the gastritis patients, those who had erosive gastritis smoked most heavily, and those who had hypertrophic gastritis drank most excessively.
Summary
Maternal Factors Associated with the Premature Rupture of Membrane in the Low Birth Weight Infant Deliveries.
Kang Sook Lee, Won Chul Lee, Kwang Ho Meng, Choong Hoon Lee, Soo Pyung Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):207-216.
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Premature rupture of membrane is the most frequent cause of low birth weight infant delivery which increase the maternal and fetal morbidity and perinatal mortality. A retrospective case-control study was performed on 315 mothers who delivered low birth weight infants(< or = 2.5kg) with premature rupture of membrane and as control group 546 mothers who delivered normal birth weight infants(2.9-3.7kg) without premature rupture of membrane were chosen. The results obtained from this study were as follows: 1. The proportion of low birth weight infants due to premature rupture of membrane among all low birth weight infant deliveries was 14.5%, and this is equivalent to 1.1% among all deliveries. 2. The most significant maternal risk factor of low birth weight infant deliveries with premature rupture of membrane was infections on vagina, cervix and uterus during pregnancy. Compared with control, adjusted odds ratio was 7.61(95% confidence interval(CI) 1.88-30.88, p=0.004). Other significant maternal risk factors were the history of induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, and the experience of premature delivery. The risk ratios were 1.82, 2.07, 4.42, respectively. 3. Breech presentation did increase the risk of low birth weight infant delivery with infant delivery with premature rupture of membrane against control(Adjusted odds ratio=2.66, 95% CI 1.35-5.26, p=0.005). 4. Mothers who had not taken antenatal care were having higher risk of low birth weight infant delivery with premature rupture of membrane against control(Adjusted odds ratio=1.73, 95% CI 1.35-5.26, p=0.004). These study results show that maternal factors such as the infection of genital organs during pregnancy, the history of induced abortion and breech presentation are significantly associated with the premature rupture of membrane in the low birth weight deliveries, and that most of these risk factors are controllable ones through proper antenatal cares.
Summary
A Study on the Epedemiological Characteristics of Industrial Ocular Injuries.
Won Chul Lee, Sang Moon Chung, Kang Sook Lee, Kwang Ho Meng, Seung Han Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):113-120.
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A total of 181 cases of industrial ocular injuries hospitalized and treated at the St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul during the 5-year period was studied on their epidemiological characteristics. Of there patients 96.7% were males, and 43.6% were in twenties, 49.7% of the cases were injured on left eyes. There were no statistically significant differences in frequencies of study subjects by day of the week and month of the year. Most common injury hour were between 10- < 12 AM(13.6%) and between 2- < 4 PM(20%). Of the total 101 cases, 37.6% were working less than 6 months, and 73.7%, less than 2 years. Of the total, 42.3% were involved in machinery work and 13.9%, in construction work. According to the American National Standard Method of recording basic facts relating to the nature and occurrence of work injuries, 62% among all source of injuries was metal item and the most common accident type was struck by flying objects(76.2%). Among 181 cases, only 2 cases wearing protective equipment when the accidents occurred.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health