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Jovvita Jonathan 1 Article
Women’s Empowerment Facilitates Complete Immunization in Indonesian Children: A Cross-sectional Study
Gede Benny Setia Wirawan, Ni Luh Zallila Gustina, Putu Harrista Indra Pramana, Made Yuliantari Dwi Astiti, Jovvita Jonathan, Fitriana Melinda, Teo Wijaya
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(2):193-204.   Published online March 8, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of women’s empowerment on the immunization of Indonesian children. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of wealth as a factor modifying this association.
We utilized data from the 2017 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). The subjects were married women with children aged 12-23 months (n=3532). Complete immunization was defined using the 2017 IDHS definition. Multiple components of women’s empowerment were measured: enabling resources, decision-making involvement, and attitude toward intimate partner violence. The primary analysis was conducted using binomial logistic regression. Model 1 represented only the indicators of women’s empowerment and model 2 controlled for socio-demographic variables. Subgroup analyses were conducted for each wealth group.
The primary analysis using model 1 identified several empowerment indicators that facilitated complete immunization. The analysis using model 2 found that maternal education and involvement in decision-making processes facilitated complete immunization in children. Subgroup analyses identified that wealth had a modifying effect. The indicators of women’s empowerment were strong determinants of complete immunization in lower wealth quintiles but insignificant in middle-income and higher-income quintiles.
To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore women’s empowerment as a determinant of child immunization in Indonesia. The results indicate that women’s empowerment must be considered in Indonesia’s child immunization program. Women’s empowerment was not found to be a determinant in higher wealth quintiles, which led us to rethink the conceptual framework of the effect of women’s empowerment on health outcomes.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Of Money and Men: A Scoping Review to Map Gender Barriers to Immunization Coverage in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
    Anna Kalbarczyk, Natasha Brownlee, Elizabeth Katz
    Vaccines.2024; 12(6): 625.     CrossRef
  • Health Beliefs and Socioeconomic Determinants of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine Acceptance: An Indonesian Cross-Sectional Study
    Gede Benny Setia Wirawan, Ngakan Putu Anom Harjana, Nur Wulan Nugrahani, Pande Putu Januraga
    Vaccines.2022; 10(5): 724.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health