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Joung Soon Kim 12 Articles
A Study on the Correlation between Categorization of the Individual Exposure Levels to Agent Orange and Serum Dioxin Levels Among the Korean Vietnam Veterans.
Joung Soon Kim, Han K Kang, Hyun Sul Lim, Hae Kwan Cheong, Min Kyung Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):80-88.
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OBJECTIVES
In an epidemiologic study on the health impact of Agent Orange exposure, the valid estimation of exposure level is the most important step. Based on recent studies, we examined the correlation between exposure levels categorized by personal exposure estimates and serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD, Dioxin), exploring the possibility of utilizing the exposure level as a surrogate for the estimate of exposure to agent orange. METHODS: During the study period (Jan 1996-Feb 1996), blood specimens of 745 subjects taken randomly among 1,329 persons and kept frozen, were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-TCDD and six other dioxin congeners. The serum dioxin and congeners were measured in 1998 by CDC ,adjusted for serum lipids. We categorized the total exposure scores into five groups based on Agent Orange exposure data collected by interview and military records. Pearson and Spearman's correlation coefficients & multiple regression analysis were used to identify the relationship of the exposure level categorized with serum concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and six other dioxin congeners. RESULTS: Dioxin and the other congeners, except 1,2,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, showed significant correlations to exposure categories (p<0.005); 2,3,7,8-TCDD and OCDD showed positive correlations, whereas the other congeners did negative. The values of 2,3,7,8-TCDD differed according to exposure category and proportionally increased from the low exposure group to the high, a dose-response relationship, even after other possible confounding variables were adjusted for. In multiple regression analysis, age(beta=0.033), dioxin(beta=0.433), 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD(beta=0.998), 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD(beta=0.773), 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD(beta=0.255), 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD(beta=3.468), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD(beta=0.109) were found to be significantly related to the total exposure score(p<0.005). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the use of such categorizations as a surrogate measure of agent orange exposure in identifying exposure degrees in a health impact study is valid.
Summary
Evaluation of the Completeness of Case Reporting during the 1998 Cheju-do Mumps Epidemic, Using Capture-recapture Methods .
Myoung Hee Kim, Jin Kyoung Park, Mo Ran Ki, Young Joo Hur, Bo Youl Choi, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(3):313-322.
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OBJECTIVES
To estimate mumps incidence during the study period and to evaluate the completeness of case reporting. METHODS: Capture-recapture methods, originally developed for counting wildlife animals, were used. The data sources were 1) the National Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System (NNCDRS; 848 cases), 2) the School Health Reporting System, temporarily administered by the Division of Education (SHRS; 1,026 cases), and 3) a survey of students (785 cases). We estimated the number of unobserved mumps cases by matching the three data sources and fitting loglinear models to the data. We then determined the estimated total number of mumps cases by adding this to the number of observed cases. Completeness was defined as the proportion of observed cases from each source to the total of estimated cases. RESULTS: The total number of observed cases was 1,844 and the total number of estimated cases was 1,935 (95% CI: 1,878-2,070). The overall completeness was 43.8% of the NNCDRS, 53.0% of the SHRS, and 40.6% of the survey. However, completeness varied by area and age. CONCLUSION: Although the completeness of NNCDRS data appeared higher than in the past, it is difficult to generalize this result. In Korea, it is possible to estimate the size of health hazards relatively cheaply and quickly, by applying capture-recapture methods to various data using a multiple data collection system.
Summary
A study on lead exposure indices of male workers exposed to lead less than 1 year in storage battery industries.
Young Hwangbo, Yong Bae Kim, Gap Soo Lee, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(4):747-764.
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This study intended to obtain an useful information for health management of lead exposed measuring the lead exposure indices and workers and determine biological monitoring interval in early period of exposure by work duration in all male workers (n=433 persons) exposed less than 1 year in 6 storage battery industries and in 49 males who are not exposed to lead as control. The examined variables were blood lead concentration(PBB), Zinc-protoporphyrin concentration(ZPP), Hemoglobin(HB) and personal history; also measured lead concentration in air(PBA) in the workplace. According to the geometric mean of lead concentration in the air, the factories were grouped into three categories: A; When it is below 0.05mg/m3, B; When it is between 0.05 and 0.10mg/m3, and C; When it is above 0.10mg/m3. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The means of blood lead concentration(PBB), ZPP concentration and hemoglobin(HB) in all male workers exposed to lead less than 1 year in storage battery industries were 29.5+/-12.4 microgram/100ml, 52.9+/-30.0 microgram/100ml and 15.2+/-1.1 gm/100ml. 2. The means of blood lead concentration(PBB), ZPP concentration and hemoglobin(HB) in control group were 5.8+/-1.6 microgram/100ml, 30.8+/-12.7 microgram/100ml and 15.7+/-1.6 microgram/100ml, being much lower than that of study group exposed to lead. 3. The means of blood lead concentration and Zpp concentration among group A were 21.9+/-7.6 microgram/100ml, 41.4+/-12.6 microgram/100ml; those of group B were 29.8+/-11.6 microgram/100ml, 52.6+/-27.9 microgram/100ml; those of group C were 37.2+/-13.5 microgram/100ml, 66.3+/-40.7 microgram/100ml. Significant differences were found among three factory group(P<0.01) that was classified by the geometric mean of lead concentration in the air, group A being the lowest. 4. The mean of blood lead concentration of workers who have different work duration(month) was as follows; when the work duration was 1-2 month, it was 24.1+/-12.4 microgram/100ml,; When the work duration was 3-4 month, it was 29.2+/-13.4 microgram/100ml; and it was 28.9+/-34.5 microgram/100ml for the workers who had longer work duration than other. Significant differences were found among work duration group(P<0.05). 5. The mean of ZPP concentration of workers who have different work duration(month) was as follows; When the work duration was 1 2 month, it was 40.6 18.0 g/100ml, When the work duration was 3-4 month, it was 53.4+/-38.4 microgram/100ml; and it was 51.5+/-60.4 microgram/100ml for the workers who had longer work duration than other. Significant differences were found among work duration group(P<0.05). 6. Among total workers(433 person), 18.2% had PBB concentration higher than 40 microgram/100ml and 7.1% had ZPP concentration higher than 100 microgram/100ml; In workers of factory group A, those were 0.9% and 0.0%; In workers of factory group B, those were 17.1% and 6.9%; In workers of factory group C, those were 39.4% and 15.4%. 7. The proportions of total workers(433 person) with blood lead concentration lower than 25 microgram/100ml and ZPP concentration lower than 50 microgram/100ml were 39.7% and 61.9%, respectively; In workers of factory group A, those were 65.5% and 82.3%; In workers of factory group B, those were 36.1% and 60.2%; In workers of factory group C, those were 19.2% and 43.3%. 8. Blood lead concentration (r=0.177, P<0.01), ZPP concentration (r=0.135, P<0.01), log ZPP (r=0.170, P<0.01) and hemoglobin (r=0.096, P<0.05) showed statistically significant correlation with work duration (month). ZPP concentration (r=0.612, P<0.01) and log ZPP(r=0.614, P<0.01) showed statistically significant correlation with blood lead concentration. 9. The slopes of simple linear regression between work duration(month, independent variable) and blood lead concentration(dependent variable) in workplace with low air concentration of lead was less steeper than that of poor working condition with high geometric mean air concentration of lead. The study result indicates that new employees should be provided with biological monitoring including blood lead concentration test and education about personal hygiene and work place management within 3~4 month.
Summary
The Estimation of Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in a Rural Adult Population.
Sue Kyung Park, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(3):483-494.
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The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus(DM) and to identify risk factors associated with fasting blood sugar in a rural adult population. We carried out a cross-sectional study on the residents over 30-year old. Among the 1077 eligible subjects, 725 persons responded to the study; the study consisted of interview on family and past history of DM, anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood sugar level in each subjects. Only 707 subjects of 725 participants had fasting blood sugar(FBS) examined and the rest, 18 subjects were had casual blood sugar examined due to failure of fasting over 8-hour. When subjects had FBS >or= 140mg/dl, 2 hours postprandial blood sugar level was checked after 75g oral glucose loading. The prevalence of DM was 8.9%, and age standardized prevalence rate adjusted to Korean population of 1995 was 5.8%. Mean and SD of fasting blood sugar in men was 99.8 +/- 22.6, and in women was 111.5 +/- 29.9. Mean levels of fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in women than in man and as their ages advanced the prevalencies in creased in both sexes. PP2 blood sugar levels were significantly higher in elder age and in persons with higher FBS levels than others. The risk factors associated with FBS were past history of diabetes, sex, socioeconomic status and waist-to-hip circumference ratio; the risk of diabetes was increased in female, people with past DM history, central obesity and low socioeconomic state. The low socioeconomic status associated with DM in this study, which is different from other study results, should be pursued in further studies.
Summary
A study on renal function indices in lead exposed male workers.
Sung Soo Lee, Young Hwangbo, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(2):421-432.
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The influence of lead exposure on renal function was studied. Eighty nine lead exposed workers who worked in 2 storage battery factories, and seventy one control workers were chosen for this study. Blood lead(pbB) and zinc protoporphyrin in whole blood(ZPP) were selected as indicators of lead exposure. As indicators of renal function, urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase(NAG), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(S-Cr), total protein in urine(U-Tp),and serum uric acid(S-Ua) were selected. The results obtained were as follows: 1. while the mean values of lead exposure indicators of lead workers were significantly different from non-exposed ones, the mean values of NAG, U-TP, BUN and S-Cr of renal function indicators of exposed were also significantly different from non-exposed but their mean values were all within normal limits. 2. BUN, logarithmic U-TP, logarithmic NAG and S-Cr showed statistically significant correlation with pbB. 3. The proportion of workers whose values of renal function indicators were over the normal limits(NAG7.5 U/g cr; U-TP 10.9mg/dl; BuN20 mg/dl; S-Cr1.2 mg/dl; S-Ua7.0 mg/dl) by the level of lead absorption in terms of pbB and ZPP were calculated. The proportion of workers with over the normal limits of U-TP among total workers showed the dose-response relationship. when age is adjusted, U-TP showed significantly strong dose-response relationship with the level of pbB and ZPP.
Summary
A Preliminary Epidemiologic Study on Korean Veterans Exposed to Herbicides in Vietnam War.
Joung Soon Kim, Hyun Sul Lee, Hong Bok Lee, Won Young Lee, Young Joo Park, Sung Soo Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):711-734.
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Among chemical agents in herbicides, dioxin(2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-rho-dioxin: a chemical contaminant in herbicides sprayed during the vietnam war has been known to be the major agent causing toxic effects. Approximately 320,000 korean soldiers participated the vietnam war from 1964 to 1974. Although the potential hazards of the herbicides among Korean veterans exposed were implicated, the problem had not been a public issue until 1991 when Korean veterans were informed U. S. companies, the herbicides manufacturer payed fund, from which a trust fund for New Zealand and Australian Class members were established in 1985. After a series of appeals and demonstration by the korean veterans demanding medical care and compensation for their serious health damages, a bill of medical care and compensation for herbicides victims was promulgated in March 1993 and become effective from May 1993. This study was carried out with two major objectives: the first to understand the health problems caused from the herbicides by reviewing literatures published, and the second to examine the nature and extent of health impacts among Korean veterans exposed and to develop valid study methods for the major study by interviewing and reviewing records on a part of veterans (638 persons) registered and completed medical examination in Seoul Veterans Administration Hospital from June to october 1993. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The literature review of 107 papers revealed that: l) Dioxin is teratogenic, carcinogenic and affects almost all organs including nertous, endocrine, and reproductive systems in animal experiments. 2) The diseases showing evidence of causal association were Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's disease, lung cancer, lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloroacne and polyneuropathy when judged on the basis of consistency in study results and biological plausibility. 2. Interview and medical record review study on 638 veterans, though limited validity owing to lack of control group, crude estimates of dioxin exposure levels (no biomarkers measurable), and uncertainty of diagnosis, showed that: 1) Most of the study subject's were in their 40's of age and had been dispatched to vietnam during the period from 1965-1970 around one year. 2) Most frequently complained symptoms in medical examination were motor weakness(32%), sensory abnormalities in extremities(23%), skin diseases(22%), and pain in extremities(20%) whereas in interview they were more frequent in order of skin problem(44%), motor weakness (38%), sensory abnormalities and pain in extremities(l7% and 19% each). Kappa indices on the same category of complaints between two sources of information were variable and relatively low. 3) On medical examination, only a part of the 638 subjects had initial impression (442 pts) and final diagnosis (218 pts) suggesting decision making on diagnosis appeared to be difficult even with all available modern medical technologies; in initial impression disorders from peripheral and central neuropathy were predominant whereas in final diagnosis various types of skin disorder were most frequent. 4) when dose-response relationship between several conditions (from questionnaire) and arbitrary exposure scores were examined by CMH linear trend test, spontaneous abortion, sexual problems and health problem of offsprings showed statistically significant linear trends. However, pregnancy, accident and suicidal attempts did not show any relationship in this study capacity. 5) Among complaints, psychosis and neurosis(anxiety, phobia) in interview study, and memory disorder and psychosis in medical record study revealed linear trend. 6) Skin disorder was the only condition showing linear trend in initial impression and none in final diagnosis on medical examination. Even though objective to select out dioxin-related disease or group of diseases from this study was not achieved the research experiences provided firm basis for developing various methodological approaches. 3. From this preliminary study we concluded that a larger scale major epidemiologic study on health impacts of herbicides among Korean veterans exposed is not only indispensible but also well designed study with more valid exposure information and diagnosis may be able to establish causal relationship between certain groups of diseases and exposure to the herbicides among Korean veterans.
Summary
An Epidemiologic Investigation on an Outbreak of Anthrax Occurred in Kyongju by Eating Dead Cow's Meat.
Hyun Sul Lim, Hae Kwan Cheong, Joung Soon Kim, Heechoul Ohr, Dong Mo Rhie, Ho Hoon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):693-710.
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This epidemiologic study was carried out to investigate cause and magnitude of food-poisoning like epidemic occurred among inhabitants of a village who have eaten dead cow's meat near Kyonng in February of 1994, around lunar new year. The investigation consisted of interview survey on all inhabitants of 77 households (l11 males and 119 females) and their visitors (40 males and 35 females), skin test with anthraxinum(Russian product), study on clinical characteristics for the patients hospitalized, and microbiologic examination on microbes isolated from cow's meat, patient and soils of dead cow's barn. The results obtained are as followings; 1. The proportion of the inhabitants who ingested the dead cow's meat was 36.4%. The incidence rate of the disease was 65.1% for males, 41.7% for females and the cases were distributed evenly for all age groups. The group ingested raw meat showed higher incidence than the group ingested cooked meat. There was no case among people who did not eat the meat. 2. The most clinical symptoms were significantly more frequent among cases than non-cases; sore throat (57%), nausea (51%), fever(47%), indigestion(43%), cough(41%), anorekia(41%), abdominal distention(41%), and abdominal pain(39%) were the major symptoms among cases. 3. Among 29 cases hospitalized out of total 61 cases, three patients, all old and feeble persons, deceased from the disease resulting in 4.9% fatality rate among total patient and 10.3% among hospitalized. Septicemia and meningitis were the causes of the deaths. 4. Three strains isolated from patients, and three strains from dead cow's meat and soil revealed typical microbiologic characteristics of Bacillus Anthracis, which also proved to be fatal to experimentally infected mice.
Summary
National Survey of Injury and Poisoning on a Representative Sample Population of Koreans.
Joung Soon Kim, Sung Soo Kim, Sung Chill Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(3):447-464.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Despite the public health importance of injury and poisoning in terms of its high mortality and incidence, epidemiologic information to be utilized are scarce in Korea. This study was carried out in 1990 on a representative sample population (about 55,000 persons) along with the 6th National Tuberculosis prevalence survey in order to estimate the magnitude of injury and poisoning occurrence and to identify its epidemiologic characteristics which can be aided for establishing preventive strategy pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used by trained interviewer to collect data including general information of the person, various information on the injury and poisoning during the past one year such as time and place of its occurrence, its nature and external causes, type of medical institute attended, duration of treatment and outcome of the accident occurred. In analysis of the data collected incidence rates per 1000 persons by sex, age group and its nature as well as external causes and relative frequencies were calculated. The result obtained are as follows; 1. The incidence rate per 1000 was 30 for both sexes, 39 for male and 22 for female, male being 1.8 times more frequent than female. Age adjusted incidences were not much different from the crude rates. Age group specific rate curve showed binodal shape in both sexes, small peaks in preschool children and higher peaks in older ages. The incidence rate per 1000 people by area was highest in Jeon-bug province (57/1000) and the lowest in Daegu city (11/1000). 2. The place where the injuries occurred were road in 46%, with the boundary of house in 25 %, and working place in 12%. The injuries and poisoning had occurred more frequently during the months from March to August of the year than other months. 3. The relatively frequent injuries by its nature were contusion with intact skin surface (19%), fracture of upper limb (13%), open wound of head neck and trunk (12%) and fracture of lower limb (11%) among males: contusion with intact skin surface (28%), sprains and strains of joints and adjacent muscle(14%), fracture of upper limb(10%) and fracture of lower limb (9%) among females. Higher incidence rate among males than females were fracture of skull(4.5times) open wound and fractures of limbs (2-3 times). Age specific rate of injuries and poisoning by its nature showed increasing pattern by age in fractures of upper and lower limbs and sprains & strains of joints whereas the age group of 30's showed highest incidence in open wounds of upper limb. Fractures of radius and ulna in upper limb, fractures of tibia & fibula and ankle in lower limb were most frequent among fractures of upper and lower limbs. The frequent injuries among sprains and strains of joints and adjacent muscles were that of ankle, foot and back and among open wound were that of head and fingers. 4. Relative frequency of injuries and poisoning by external causes showed following order: other accidents(25%), accidental falls (23%), motor vehicle accident (22%) and other road vehicle accident (l4%) among males and accidental falls (37%), motor vehicle accident (24%) and other accident (l8%) among females. The external causes revealing higher incidences among males than females, were other road vehicle accident (4.8times), vehicle accident not elsewhere classifiable (4.4 times), accidental poisoning (4.4 times), accidents due to natural and environmental factors (2.8times), and suicide & self-inflicted injuries (2.8 times). Age specific incidence by external causes for frequent injuries showed that incidence of other accident steadily increased from 10's till age 50's; motor vehicle traffic accident increased from age 20's and dropped after age 60's; on the other hand accidental fall increased strikingly by age. The most frequent external causes among motor vehicle traffic accidents was motor vehicle traffic accident involving collision with pedestrian (69%), pedal cycle accident (30%) and other road vehicle accident (71%) among other road vehicle accidents; falls on same level from slipping, tripping or standing (44%) and other falls from one level to another among accidental falls; accidents caused by machinery (32%) for male and striking against or struck accidentally by objects or person for female among other accidents. 5. seventy nine percent of the injuries and poisonings were treated in general hospital or hospital/clinic. The duration of treatment ranged from a few days to 123 weeks; the majority (52%) took under 2 weeks, 36% for 3-8 weeks and 40% over 21 weeks. 6. The accident resulted in full recovery of normal healthy state in 62%, residual functional defects in 21% and on process of treatment in 16%.
Summary
Perspective on Population Characteristics and Health Problems of Koreans in 21st Century.
Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(2):175-185.
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In order to anticipate disease pattern and health problems of Koreans in the 1st part of 21st century(by the year 2020), transition of population characteristics, mortality and morbidity data during the last 30 years Koreans have experienced were reviewed. On the actual basis of epidemiolgic transition process that has undergone during last 30 years since 1960 along with socioeconomic development and successful implementation of selective national health policies(family planning, medical insurance and etc.), following changes can be expected in the 21st century in Korea, under the assumption that the current rate of progress is maintained. The population of South Korea alone will be doubled the population of 1960 by the year 2013;aged population older than 65 years will be increased from 3.3% in 1960 to 11.4% in 2020 with increased average age of the population from 23.6 year in 1970 to 39.2 year in 2020;urban population from 28% in 1960 to 83% in 2005. GNP/capita has increased tremendously from U.S. $120 in 1970 to $6,749 in 1992, and the government estimated it would be $19,350 in 2010 and $29,460 in 2020. Growth and developmental indices of children, educational achievement and social status of women also showed a remarkable improvement and anticipated to make further progress. Leading causes of mortality and morbidity have shown a striking change during the last 30 years, from infectious diseases to chronic degenerative diseases and man-made injuries. Occurrence of communicable diseases may become minimal although viral hepatitis, venereal diseases including AIDS, and well adapted herpes virus infections will maintain their endemic level. Newly evolving infectious agents, however, should be carefully monitored because of rapidly changing environments and human behaviors. Tuberculosis may increase up to the epidemic level when AIDS prevails. Ischemic heart diseases may increase steadily with increasing occurrence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus whereas cerebrovascular diseases may be decreased slowly. Musculaskeletal diseases which contribute a lot to the disability of aged people may be a major health problems due to increased aged population. Mental diseases, particularly that caused by alcohol and drug abuse, and senile dementia may become a prominent health problem. On the other hand injuries caused by traffic and industrial accidents that have shown most striking increase till now may be decreased considerably by intensive intervention. The health policies in the 21st century will be oriented to the health promotion for good quality life rather than life-savings.
Summary
A Study on the Status of Seeking Intervention among the Workers with Health Problems Identified by the Workers' Periodic Health Examination.
Hee Kwan Cheong, Joung Soon Kim, Ok Ryun Moon, Hyun Sul Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):343-356.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Authors studied the workers' knowledge about the health problems detected through the previous workers' periodic health examination, content of follow-up management and actions taken for their health problem detected on previous health examination. From June to September 1992, workers' periodic health examination was performed on workers employed in 10 companies located in 2 middle-sized Korean cities. A questionnaire survey was done for 150 workers who reported to have D2 result of either hypertension or liver disorder at the previous workers' periodic health examination done in 1991. The results are as follows; 1. Of 160 workers who had D2 result of either hypertension or liver disorder in previous examination one year before, only 85 workers(51.3%, 43 workers with hypertension, 38 workers with live disorder) responded that they have such disorders. The other 65 workers responded to questionnaire were all those with C results. Respondents' knowledge about their diagnoses was relatively precise (95.2% in hypertension group, 94.6% in liver disorder group) but knowledge about classification of diseases was poor. 2. The main efforts to solve the health problem was self management (26 spells, 55.3%), visiting clinic or hospital (6 spells, 12.8%), use of herb medicine (2 spells, 4.3%) and use of drug store (2 spells, 4.3%) in hypertension group. In liver disorder group, 30 spells (71.4%) relied on self management, 6 spells (14.3%) on hospital or clinic and 9 spells (21.4%) had no effort to improve the health problem. Content of self management was low salt diet, quit smoking, regular exercise and quit alcohol drinking in order. Avoidance of salt in diet was high in hypertension group and quitting alcohol drinking was high in liver disorder group. In those with self management, 80.7% of hypertension group and 83.3% of liver disorder group continued previous effort. Those, however, who utilized clinic or hospital, only 16.7% and 50.0% were still visiting hospital or clinic. 3. Fifty seven percent of hypertension group and 64.3% of liver disorder group was presently smoking, 8.5% and 11.9% reduced smoking and 21.3% and 14.3% stopped smoking. Forty nine percent of hypertension group and 28.6% of liver disorder group was presently drinking. Reduced alcohol intake was reported in 29.8% and 40.5%, 12.8% and 23.8% stopped alcohol drinking. Sixty six percent of hypertension group and 73.8% of liver disorder group did no regular exercise, but 12.8% and 11.9% of each group increased their physical exercise for last one year. Forty three percent of hypertension group and 38.1% of liver disorder group was overweight (defined by bodymass index greater or equal than 25). Reduced body weight was reported in 17.2% and 16.7% of each group. Reduced dietary salt intake was high in hypertension group (51.5%). The study results suggest that follow-up management after workers' periodic health examination is not satisfactory. In order to improve this situation, adequate information on the result of the workers' periodic health examination should be distributed to each worker group with health education and counselling.
Summary
A cross-sectional study on prevalence rate and contributing factors of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography.
Jae Eog Ahn, Jung Oh Ham, Kyu Yoon Hwang, Joo Ja Kim, Byung Kook Lee, Tack Sung Nam, Joung Soon Kim, Hun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(2):195-210.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Fatty liver is caused by derangement of fat metabolism and can be reversed by removal of contributing factors. The contributing factors of fatty liver is known to be overweight, chronic alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, and drug abuse such as tetracycline. This study was carried out on 1335 persons who visited 'Soon Chun Hyang Human Dock Center' from March to June 1990. In analysis of the data, prevalence of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonogram by age and sex, laboratory finding between fatty liver group and normal group, and odds ratio of known contributing factors, were compared. The results obtained are as following; 1) The prevalence rate of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonogram is 29.6% in male and 11.5% in female. 2) Age groups with high prevalences are 40~50's in male (32.0%) and 50's in female (24.5%). 3) The fatty liver shows significant association with style (p<0.05), whereas not with hepatitis B-virus surface antigen (p>0.05). 4) All laboratory values except alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are elevated significantly in accordance with the degree of fatty liver (p<0.01). 5) Fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonogram showed so strong associations with body index, triglycerides and gamma-glutamyl transferase for males, and body index and fasting blood sugar for females that these factors may be used as supplementary data in establishing diagnosis of fatty liver. 6) Odds ratio of contributing factors are as follows; If the odds ratio of below 29 year of age is 1.0 then that of 30~39 is 1.74 (p=0.33), 40~49 is 2.47 (p=0.10), 50~59 is 2.86 (p=0.0570), over 60 is 1.81 (p=0.34). If the odds ratio of female is 1.0 then that of male is 5.67 (p<0.01). If the odds ratio of body index below zero is 1.0 then that of 0~9 is 5.08 (p<0.01), 10~19 is 12.37 (p<0.01), 20~29 is 29.19 (p<0.01), 30 above is 154.02 (p<0.01). If the odds ratio of below 99 mg/dl FBS is 1.0 then that of 100~120 is 106 (p=0.76), over 120 is 1.91 (p=0.02). If the odds ratio of below 29 micron/1 gamma-GT is 1.0 then that of 30~s59 is 2.11 (p<0.01), 60~90 is 1.87 (p<0.05), 90 above is 1.69 (p=0.15). If the odds ratio of below 149 mg/dl TG is 1.0 then 150~199 is 1.49 (p=0.05), 200~250 is 1.09 (p=0.77), 250 above is 2.53 (p<0.01). In summary, early diagnosis of fatty liver could be made by ultrasonogram supplemented with body index and serum triglyceride. The fatty liver could be preventive by avoiding contributing factors such as obesity, alcohol intake, high blood sugar appropriately.
Summary
Relationship of between blood lead level and lead related symptoms in low level lead exposure.
Kyu Yoon Hwang, Jae Eog Ahn, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(2):181-194.
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This study intended to obtain an useful information on the prevalence of subjective symptoms, and to clarify the interrelationships between blood lead and lead related symptoms in low level lead exposure. The 93 male workers exposed to lead and 56 male nonexposed workers were examined for their blood lead (PBB), Zinc-protoporphy (ZPP), hemoglobin (HB) and personal history, and completed 15 questionnaires related to symptoms of lead absorption; also measured lead concentration in air (PBA) in the workplace. The results obtained were as follow; 1. The means of blood lead (PBB), blood ZPP and hemoglobin (HB) among workers exposed to lead were 26.1+/-8.8 microgram/dl, 28.3+/-26.0 microgram/dl and 16.2+/-1.2g/dl; whereas those of nonexposed workers were 18.7+/-5.1 microgram/dl, 20.6+/-8.7 microgram/dl and 17.3+/-1.1g/dl. The means of above three indicies between two groups showed significant difference statistically (p<0.05). 2. The means of blood lead (PBB), blood ZPP and hemoglobin of workers exposed to different lead concentration in air were as follows; When it was below 25 microgram/m3 , the indices were 24.7+/-79, 26.1+/-26.8 microgram/dl and 16.4+/-1.1 g/dl respectively; These indices were 27.1+/-8.5, 23.9+/-10.92 /dl and 16.2+/-1.3 g/dl when the lead concentration in air was 25~50 microgram/m3; and they were 3.4+/-9.3, 42.3+/-31.3 microgram/dl and 15.5+/-1.2 g/dl when the concentration of lead was above 50 microgram/m3. Although there were statistical difference in blood lead and hemoglobin among three different lead concentration in air, there was no statistical difference of blood ZPP among the three groups with different exposure levels (p>0.05). 3. The most frequently by complained symptom was "Generalized weakness and fatigue", and fewest symptom was "Intermittent pains in abdomen". 4. Only two symptoms out of fifteen symptoms checked by themselves revealed significant difference between exposed and nonexposed groups. These were "Intermittent pains of abdomen" and "Joint pain or arthralgia" (p<0.05). No positive correlation was found between the levels of blood lead and symptom groups categorized as gastrointestinal, neuromuscular and constitutional symptoms. 5. Blood lead (r=0.3995) and ZPP (r=0.2837) showed statistically significant correlation with mean lead concentration in air, whereas correlations were not demonstrated between blood lead and lead related symptoms or blood ZPP and lead related symptoms. 6. Blood lead (PBB) and ZPP showed association (r=0.2466) and the equation PBB=23.75+0.0842 ZPP was derived. 7. On stepwise multiple regression, using blood lead level as a dependent variable and ZPP, hemoglobin (HB), age, work duration (WD) and symptom prevalence as a independent variables, only ZPP significantly contributed a lot to blood lead level. 8. While the ZPP measurement was found to be a good indicator in evaluating health effect of lead absorption in low level lead exposure, lead related symptoms were not sensitive enough to evaluate of lead absorption in low level exposure.
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health