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Jieun Hwang 1 Article
Smoking-attributable Mortality in Korea, 2020: A Meta-analysis of Four Databases
Eunsil Cheon, Yeun Soo Yang, Suyoung Jo, Jieun Hwang, Keum Ji Jung, Sunmi Lee, Seong Yong Park, Kyoungin Na, Soyeon Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Sung-il Cho
Received October 23, 2023  Accepted May 3, 2024  Published online July 3, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.471    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Estimating the number of deaths caused by smoking is crucial for developing and evaluating tobacco control and smoking cessation policies. This study aimed to determine smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) in Korea in 2020.
Methods
Four large-scale cohorts from Korea were analyzed. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) of smoking-related death. By conducting a meta-analysis of these HRs, the pooled HRs of smoking-related death for 41 diseases were estimated. Population-attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated based on the smoking prevalence for 1995 in conjunction with the pooled HRs. Subsequently, SAM was derived using the PAF and the number of deaths recorded for each disease in 2020.
Results
The pooled HR for all-cause mortality attributable to smoking was 1.73 for current male smokers (95% CI, 1.532-1.954) and 1.631 for current female smokers (95% CI, 1.371-1.94). Smoking accounted for 33.2% of all-cause deaths in men and 4.6% in women. Additionally, it was a factor in 71.8% of male lung cancer deaths and 11.9% of female lung cancer deaths. In 2020, smoking was responsible for 53,930 male deaths and 6,283 female deaths, totaling 60,213 deaths.
Conclusions
Cigarette smoking was responsible for a significant number of deaths in Korea in 2020. Monitoring the impact and societal burden of smoking is essential for effective tobacco control and harm prevention policies.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health