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Im Ok Kang 4 Articles
Measuring Workload of Home Visit Care Activities Using Relative Values.
Seong Ok Han, Eun Cheol Park, Dae Ryong Kang, Im Ok Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(5):331-338.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.5.331
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to measure the workload of home visit care activities and their relative values. This study examined also factors that affect the workload of home visit care activities. METHODS: The participants of this study were 126 homehelpers of 50 home visit care agencies at the 2nd Longterm Care Insurance Demonstration Project. The workload of home visit care activities was divided into total work and four dimensions ; physical efforts, mental efforts, stress and time. Home visit care activities consisted of four categories with 24 items. We used magnitude estimation method to measure their relative values of the four dimensions. The participants answered the relative values of each activities based on the reference service. We used the activity for supporting their elderly's evacuation as the reference service. RESULTS: Most of the respondents were over 40 years old female. They consumed most their time supporting elderly's going out. They consumed their highest physical, mental efforts, and stress for activities of coping with emergency situation. The Pearson correlation coefficients showed significant relationships between workload and each dimensions. This study showed that all four dimensions are statistically significant predictors of workload of home visit care activities. Also, we found that the home-helper's career affects the workload of home visit care activities. CONCLUSIONS: The workload of home visit care activities could be explained by physical efforts, mental efforts, stress and time.
Summary
A study on appropriateness of price of medical care service in health insurance.
Ki Hong Chun, Kui Son Choi, Im Ok Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):460-470.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
By expanding health insurance, customers will carry a smaller burden of medical costs. As a result, the number of visits to a physician increase and this result in the improvement of medical accessibility. But medical care utilization may be changed not only by insurance status but also by socio-demographic factor, economic status and other factors. The question thus remains, at which level of accessibility and what price of medical care service in health insurance will the customer and the medical care service be satisfied. The price of medical care service is comprised of the customer's out-of-pocket money and the costs not covered by health insurance. If the price of medical care services in health insurance are appropriate, medical care utilization should not differ because of the difference in income status or the acuteness of illness. But If the price is not adequate, low income groups will receive relatively low medical care utilization, particularly in the case of chronic disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences in medical care utilization among the various income groups and those with varying acuteness of illness. The major hypotheses to test in this study are : (I) whether there are differences in medical care utilization among different income groups exist, (II) whether differences in medical care utilization among different income groups exist with the hospital type. (III) whether differences in medical care utilization among different income groups exist with the acuteness of illness and with age. The data was collected from the JongRo District Health Insurance Society in Seoul. A total of 118,336 persons were selected as the final sample for this study. The major findings of this study were as follows ; 1. The volume of ambulatory utilization among users was statistically significant by income level. 2. Among different income groups, the volume of ambulatory utilization was statistically significant by the acuteness of illness. 3. Higher income groups with chronic diseases had a greater volume of ambulatory utilization than other groups.
Summary
The Economic Impact of a Rural Hospital to local Economy.
Im Ok Kang, Sun Hee Lee, Han Joong Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(4):831-842.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Demand for high quality medical care has recently been increasing in step with high level of income and education. Patients prefer the use of large general hospitals to small community hospitals. Large hospitals, usually located at urban area, expand their capacities to cope with the increasing demand, therefore, they easily secure revenue necessary for growth and development of hospitals. However, small community hospitals are facing with serious financial difficulties caused from the reduction of patients in one hand and the inflation of cost in another. If small rural hospitals were closed, the closure would have negative impacts on local economies in addition to the decrease in access to medical care. Community leaders should have an insight on the contribution of community hospitals to local economies. They could make a rational decision on the hospital closure only with the understanding of hospital's contribution to the community. This study is designed to develop an economic model to estimate the contribution of rural hospital to local economies, and also to apply this model with a specific hospital. The contribution of a hospital to local economies consists of two elements, direct effect and multiplier effects. The direct impacts include hospital's local purchasing power, employee's local purchasing power, and the consumption of patients coming from outside the community. The direct impact induces multiplication effect in the local economy. The seed money invested to other industries grows through economic activities in the economy. The seed money invested to other industries grows through economic activities in the region. This study estimated the direct effect with the data of expenditure of the case hospital. The total effect was calculated by multiplied the direct effect with a multiplier. The multiplier was drown from the ratio of marginal propensity of income and expenditure. Beside the estimation of the total impacts, the economic effect from the external resources was also analyzed by the use of the ratio of patients coming outside the region. The results are as follows. 1. The direct economic contribution of the hospital to the local economy is 1,104 million won. 2. The value of multiplier in the region is 2.976. 3. The total economic effect is 3,286 million won, and the multiplication effect is 2,182 million won. 4. The economic contribution from the external resources is 245 million won which is 7.5% of the total economic effect.
Summary
A study on the trend in the length of hospital stay in Korea.
Woo Hyun Cho, Ki Hong Chung, Im Ok Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):51-66.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to examine the trends of length of hospital stay (LOS), which is most likely to be a major attribute to hospital performance From 1984 to 1994, an average LOS of each hospital was analyzed by factors such as medical departments, bed size, occupancy rate, region and ownership. This study was analyzed changing rate of LOS during 11 years. This rate was calculated by simple regression, which was used only with hospital without missing data during 11 years. This study findings are as follows. 1. The results indicated that the average LOS was steadily increased until 1990 but it was slightly decreased after 1990. 2. This trend could be found in all hospital scale and all group of occupancy rate. Specifically this trends of LOS were found in internal medicine, corporate owned hospitals, and hospitals in major city. But LOS of individual owned hospital was continuously increased until 1994. 3. Means of changing rates of LOS were calculated from 1984 to 1994. If we divided it into two parts, before 1990 and after 1990, most changing rates of LOS before 1990 except individual owned hospital were found positive sign. The changing rates after 1990 were negative sign but small hospital(lesser then 200 bed), individual owned hospital, national & public hospital and hospital in small urban have little change of LOS after 1990. Finally from this results we thought that most hospitals in korea began to be concerned with LOS. Nevertheless LOS of several hospital such as small hospital or individual owned hospital was increased. And this trend may be caused by a few patients, low occupancy rate, or low profit. This trend of LOS is different from that of other countries. Perhaps this phenomenon is resulted from the reimbursement method. Because of fee for service reimbursement system in korea the hospitals didn't need to shorten LOS in order to save the cost and increase the profit. Therefore reform of hospital cost reimbursement method will be reduced to reduce hospital cost in korea. we thought that the korean health authority should consider the reimbursement method by unit of bundle of services, for example DRG and prepayment in the united states. This study presents some limitations such as on insight of severity of disease, case-mix measurement of hospital, and other clinical characteristics that can possibly affect LOS, However, this study reports an important trend in LOS from 1984 to 1994.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health