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Il Ho Kim 6 Articles
Age and Gender Differences in the Relation of Chronic Diseases to Activity of Daily Living (ADL) Disability for Elderly South Koreans: Based on Representative Data.
Il Ho Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(1):32-40.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.1.32
  • 6,175 View
  • 161 Download
  • 32 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the gender and age differential effect of major chronic diseases on activity of daily living (ADL) disability. METHODS: Surveyfreq and Surveylogistic regression analyses were employed on the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) with a sample of 3,609 persons aged 65 - 89. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential covariates, stroke, among elderly men more so than women, had a 2-3 times greater odds of engendering ADL disability in the 65-69 (p < 0.05) and 70-79 age groups (p < 0.01). In comparison to elderly women, cancer, diabetes, and incontinence in elderly men was associated with a higher risk of ADL disability in the 70 - 79 age group (p < 0.05), and this association was also observed for pulmonary disease in the 80-89 age group. Among elderly women, however, a significant association between incontinence and ADL disability was identified in all three age groups. In addition, this association was found in pulmonary disease and diabetes in elderly women aged 70 - 79 years. Significant gender differences were observed in the association between stroke in the 60 - 79 age group and cancer in the 70 - 79 age group. CONCLUSIONS: Age and gender differences were observed in the effect of chronic diseases on ADL disability.
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Gender, Professional and Non-Professional Work, and the Changing Pattern of Employment-Related Inequality in Poor Self-Rated Health, 1995-2006 in South Korea.
Il Ho Kim, Young Ho Khang, Sung Il Cho, Heeran Chun, Carles Muntaner
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(1):22-31.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.1.22
  • 6,080 View
  • 102 Download
  • 26 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. METHODS: Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006) from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. RESULTS: After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea's 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however, decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, < 0.001, respectively), but only among male daily employees (p = 0.001). Relative employment-related health inequalities had clearly widened for female daily workers between 2003 and 2006 (p = 0.047). The 1997 Korean economic downturn, in particular, seemingly stimulated a widening gap in employment health inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that whereas absolute health inequalities in relation to employment status increased in the professional group, relative employment-related health inequalities increased in the nonprofessional group, especially among women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee's occupational and employment status.
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Employment and Married Women's Health in Korea; Beneficial or Harmful?.
Il Ho Kim, Heeran Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(5):323-330.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.5.323
  • 4,949 View
  • 49 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to investigate whether working married women in different occupational classes affected diverse health outcomes. METHODS: We used data for married women aged 25-59 (N=2,273) from the 2005 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Outcome measures included physical/mental and subjective/objective indicators (self-rated poor health, chronic diseases, depression, and suicidal ideation from reported results; metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia from health examination results). Age-standardized prevalence and logistic regression were employed to assess health status according to three types of working groups (housewives, married women in manual jobs, married women in non-manual jobs). Sociodemographic factors (age, numbers of children under 7, education, household income) and health behaviors (health examination, sleep, rest, exercise, smoking, drinking) and a psychological factor (stress) were considered as covariates. RESULTS: Non-manual married female workers in Korea showed better health status in all five health outcomes than housewives. The positive health effect for the non-manual group persisted in absolute (age-adjusted prevalence) and relative (odds ratio) measures, but multivariate analyses showed an insignificant association of the non-manual group with dyslipidemia. Manual female workers showed significantly higher age-adjusted prevalence of almost all health outcomes than housewives except chronic disease, but the associations disappeared after further adjustment for covariates regarding sleep, rest, and stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that examining the health impact of work on married women requires the consideration of occupational class.
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Trends in Sex Ratio at Birth according to Parental Social Positions: Results from Vital Statistics Birth, 1981-2004 in Korea.
Heeran Chun, Il Ho Kim, Young Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(2):143-150.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.2.143
  • 5,299 View
  • 52 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
South Korea has experienced unprecedented ups and downs in the sex ratio at birth (SRB), which has been a unique phenomenon in the last two decades. However, little is known about socioeconomic factors that influence the SRB. Employing the diffusion theory by Rogers, this study was undertaken to examine the trends in social variations in the SRB from 1981 to 2004 in Korea. METHODS: The data was taken from Vital Birth Statistics for the period from 1981-2004. We computed the annual male proportion of live births according to the parental education (university, middle/high school, primary) and occupation (non-manual, manual, others). Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the odds ratios of male birth according to social position for the equidistant three time periods (1981-1984, 1991-1994, and 2001-2004). RESULTS: An increased SRB was detected among parents with higher social position before the mid 1980s. Since then, however, a greater SRB was found for the less educated and manual jobholders. The inverse social gradient for the SRB was most prominent in early 1990s, but the gap has narrowed since the late 1990s. The mother's socioeconomic position could be a sensitive indicator of the social variations in the sex ratio at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the relationship of parental social position with the SRB were detected during the 1980-2004 in Korea. This Korean experience may well be explained by diffusion theory, suggesting there have been socioeconomic differences in the adoption and spread of sex-detection technology.
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Socioeconomic Inequalities in Preventive Services among the Elderly: Results from Medical Checkup, Cancer Check, and BP Check.
Heeran Chun, Il Ho Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):404-410.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.5.404
  • 4,628 View
  • 48 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Due to the assumptions of homogeneity as well as challenges in the socioeconomic position of the elderly, they have been relatively neglected in studies of health inequalities. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the social inequalities in preventive services among elderly men and women. METHODS: Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 342 men and 525 women aged 65 and over collected during the 2001 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Age adjusted proportions and logistic regression were used to identify the social patterning of preventive services among elderly Koreans using various social position indicators. RESULTS: The findings of this study generally supported the presence of social gradients in preventive services among the Korean elderly. The likelihood of using the service becomes progressively higher with social position. Educational level, income, and self-rated living status were significantly associated with increased medical checkups and cancer checks. In addition, logistic regression detected educational inequalities only among older women receiving BP checks. After being stratified based on health status and chronic disease status, social disparities still existed when educational level and self-rated living status were considered. Among unhealthy individuals, place of residence was observed as a barrier to medical checkups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated strong and consistent associations between socioeconomic position and preventive services among the elderly in Korea. The results indicate that public health strategies should be developed to reduce the barriers to preventive services encountered by the elderly.
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Does Non-standard Work Affect Health?.
Il Ho Kim, Do myung Paek, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(3):337-344.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
Job insecurity, such as non-standard work, is reported to have an adverse impact on health, regardless of health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between non-standard employment and health in Korea. METHODS: We analyzed a representative weighted sample, which consisted of 2, 112 men and 1, 237 women, aged 15-64, from the 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Non-standard employment included part-time permanent, short time temporary and daily workers. Self-reported health was used as a health indicator. RESULTS: This study indicated that women were more likely to report poorer health than men with standard jobs. Of all employees, 20.3% were female manual workers. After adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, education, equivalent income, marital, social and selfreported economic status and health behavior factors, nonstandard employment was found to be significantly associated with poor health among female manual workers (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.79). No significant association was found in other working groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among female manual workers, nonstandard employees reported significantly poorer health compared with standard workers. This result raises concern as there are increasing numbers of non-standard workers, particularly females.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health