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Hyung Gon Kang 7 Articles
Time Series Observations of Outcome Variables and the Factors Associated with the Improvement in the Patient Outcomes of Cataract Surgery.
Han Joong Kim, Eun Cheol Park, Yoon Jung Choi, Hyung Gon Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):175-181.
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OBJECTIVES
To compare the multiple outcomes of patients with cataract surgery at perioperative time, 3-4 months and 12 months after surgery and to assess patient outcomes associated with visual improvement(visual acuity of operated eye, visual function-14(VF-14), symptom score). METHODS: For this assessment, a prospective study was conducted with 389 patients who had undergone cataract surgery for either one eye or both eyes. The surgery was performed by 20 ophthalmologists who were practicing at university hospitals and general hospitals. Patients were interviewed and clinical data were obtained. Doctors were questioned with self-reported questionnaire forms. Medical records were examined in order to measure variables related to the surgical process such as surgical methods and ocular comorbidity. The survey was conducted at 4 stages : preoperative time(389 cases), perioperative time(344 cases, 88.4%), postoperative 3-4 months (343 cases, 88.2%), and postoperative 12 months (281 cases, 72.2%). After excluding cases with incomplete data, 198 cases were enrolled in the study. Patient outcomes was measured for any improvement in the functional outcomes(visual acuity of operated eye, visual function, symptom score) at postoperative 3-4 months. RESULTS: The visual acuity(operated, weighted average), symptom score, VF-14 score, satisfaction with vision, and subjective health status were shown to be improved at the perioperative time, postoperative 3-4 months and 12 months. An improvement in the Snellen visual acuity score was observed in 190 patients(96.0%), whereas improvements of the VF-14 score and cataract symptom score were observed in 151 patients(76.3%) and 179 patients(90.4%), respectively. All three outcome measures demonstrated improvement in 137 patients(69.2%). The improvement of the three functional outcomes at 3-4 months after receiving surgery was associated with a lower level of visual function and a higher level of cataract symptom score at perioperative time, as well as a greater experience level of the surgeon. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the estimates of the proportion of patients benefiting from cataract surgery varied with the outcome measure of benefit. Preoperative VF-14 score, a measure of functional impairment related to vision, and symptom score may be better measures of the benefit derived from cataract surgery than the change in visual acuity.
Summary
Cancer Incidence in Kangwha County(1986 - 1992).
Soh Yoon Kim, Heechoul Ohrr, Hyung Gon Kang, Suk Il Kim, Sang Wook Yi
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):482-490.
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OBJECTIVES
This paper presents the information on the incidence of cancer from the population-based cancer resistry in Kangwha County. Material and METHODS: This investigation is based on Kangwha cancer registry. The data included cases of cancer diagnosed from 1986 through 1992. The diagnosis of cancer was confirmed by a team of physicians and nurses with the medical records kept in the clinics and hospitals based on the diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO. Home visitings were also made to cancer patients confirmed in every 6 months for the follow up and for the collection of relevant information directly from the patients. RESULTS: A total of 992 cancer cases were registered during 1986 - 1992. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rate of all site is 201.7 in men and 110.7 in women. The most common cancer is the stomach cancer in both sexes. The age-adjusted incidence rate of the stomach cancer is 65.9 in men and 25.0 in women per 100,000 population. The lung cancer(33.8) and liver cancer(27.7) are next common cancers in men. The cervical cancer(21.8) and lung cancer(8.4) are next in women. CONCLUSION: The most common cancer is the stomach cancer in both sexes. The annual age-adjusted incidence rate of the stomach cancer is 65.9 in men and 25.0 in women per 100,000 population.
Summary
The Prevalence of Cancer in Kangwha County.
Sang Wook Yi, Heechoul Ohrr, Kang Hee Lee, Suk Il Kim, Hyung Gon Kang, Sun Ha Jee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):333-342.
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OBJECTIVES
Most descriptive studies of cancer have focused either on cancer incidence or mortality. Cancer prevalence has rarely been estimated. Cancer prevalence data can be used as a measure of the economic and social burden of cancer and are also useful for health care planning. This study attempts to estimate cancer prevalence in Kangwha county. METHODS: This investigation is based on data of Kangwha cancer registry. The data include all cases of cancer diagnosed from 1983 through 1992. We define "prevalent cases" as cancer patients who is alive as of January 1, 1993. For each five-year age group, the number of "known prevalent cases" is added to the number of "estimated prevalent cases". Prevalence is calculated by dividing these sums by the populations of Kangwha County on December 31, 1992(derived from Kangwha Statistics Annual). RESULTS: Crude prevalence of cancer among males and females are 536.7 and 601.1 per 100,000 respectively. Gastric cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm(213.2 per 100,000, crude prevalence) among males. It is followed by lung cancer(45.1 per 100,000), liver cancer(32.8 per 100,000), rectal cancer(25.4 per 100,000) and colon cancer(25.4 per 100,000). Cervical cancer is the most common cancer(201.9 per 100,000, crude prevalence) and is followed by gastric cancer(91.5 per 100,000), thyroid cancer(64.8 per 100,000), breast cancer(57.2 per 100,000) and rectal cancer(32.7 per 100,000) among females. CONCLUSIONS: We tried to estimate cancer prevalence based on the Kangwha cancer registry for the first time in Korea. The estimation of cancer prevalence based on a population-based cancer registry will be more correct and useful as the data accumulate. We will make another estimation in the near future.
Summary
Changes in blood pressure and determinants of blood pressure level and change in Korean adolescents.
Il Suh, Chung Mo Nam, Sun Ha Jee, Suk Il Kim, Young Ok Kim, Sung Soon Kim, Won Heum Shim, Chun Bae Kim, Kang Hee Lee, Jong Won Ha, Hyung Gon Kang, Kyung Won Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(2):308-326.
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Many studies have led to the notion that essential hypertension in adults is the result of a process that starts early in life: investigation of blood pressure(BP) in children and adolescents can therefore contribute to knowledge of the etiology of the condition. a A unique longitudinal study on BP in Korea, known as Kangwha Children's Blood Pressure(KCBP) Study was initiated in 1986 to investigate changes in BP in children. This study is a part of the KCBP study. The purposes of this study are to show changes in BP and to determine factors affecting to BP level and change in Korean adolescents during age period 12 to 16 years. A total of 710 students(335 males, 375 females) who were in the first grade at junior high school(12 years old) in 1992 in Kangwha County, Korea have been followed to measure BP and related factors(anthropometric, serologic and dietary factors) annually up to 1996. A total of 562 students(242 males, 320 females) completed all five annual examinations. The main results are as follows: 1. For males, mean systolic diastolic BP at age 12 and 16 years old were 108.7 mmHg & 118.1 mmHg(systolic), and 69.5 mmHg & 73.4 mmHg(diastolic), respectively. BP level was the highest when students were at 15 years old. For females, mean systolic and diastolic BP at age 12 and 16 years were 114.4 mmHg & 113.5 mmHg(systolic) and 75.2 mmHg & 72.1 mmHg(diastolic), respectively. BP level reached the highest point when they were 13-14 years old. 2. Anthropometric variables(height, weight and body mass index etc) increased consitantly during the study period for males. However, the rate of increase was decreased for females after age 15 years. Serum total cholesterol decreased and triglyceride increased according to age for males, but they did not show any significant trend for females. Total fat intake increased at age 16 years compared with that at age 14 years. Composition of carbohydrate, protein and fat among total energy intake was 65:15:20 at age 14 and 16 years. 3. Most of anthropometric measures, especially, height, body mass index(BMI) and triceps skinfold thickness, showed a significant correlation with BP level in both sexes. When BMI was adjusted, serum total cholesterol showed a significant negative correlation with systolic BP at age 12 years in males, but at age 14 years the direction of correlation changed to positive. In females serum total cholesterol was negatively correlated with diastolic BP at age 15 and 16 years. Triglyceride and creatine showed positive correlation with systolic and diastolic BP in males, but they did not show any correlation in females. There was no consistent findings between nutrient intake and BP level. However, protein intake correlated positively with diastolic BP level in males. 4. Blood pressure change was positively associated with changes in BMI and serum total cholesterol in both sexes. Change in creatine was associated with BP change positively in males and negatively in females. Students whose sodium intake was high showed higher systolic and diastolic BP in males, and students whose total fat intake was high maintained lower level of BP in females. The major determinants on BP change was BMI in both sexes.
Summary
Four-year change and tracking of serum lipids in Korean adolescents.
Kang Hee Lee, Il Suh, Sun Ha Jee, Chung Mo Nam, Sung Soon Kim, Won Heum Shim, Jong Won Ha, Suk Il Kim, Hyung Gon Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(1):45-60.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It has been known that there is a tracking phenomenon in the level of serum lipids. However, no study has been performed to examine the change and tracking of serum lipids in Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes of serum lipids in Korean adolescents from 12 to 16 years of age, and to examine whether or not there is a tracking phenomenon in serum lipids level during the period. In 1992 serum lipids(total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), LDL cholesterol(LDL-C), HDL cholesterol(HDL-C)) were measured in 318 males, 365 females who were 12 years of age in Kangwha county, Korea. These participants have been followed up to 1996 and serum lipids level were examined in 1994 and 1996. Among the participants 162 males and 147 females completed all three examinations in fasting state. To examine the effect of eliminating adolescents with incomplete data, we compared serum lipids, blood pressure and anthropometric measures at baseline between adolescents with complete follow-up and adolescents who were withdrawn. To examine the change of serum lipids we compared mean values of serum lipids according to age in males and females. Repeated analysis of variance was used to test the change according to age. We used three methods to examine the existence of tracking. First, we analyzed the trends in serum lipids over 4-year period within quartile groups formed on the basis of the first-year serum lipids level to see whether or not the relative ranking of the mean serum lipids among the quartile groups remained in the same group for 4-year period. Second, we quantified the degree of tracking by calculating Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between every tests. Third, the persistence extreme quartile method was used. This method divides the population into quartile groups according to the initial level of blood lipids and then calculates the percent of the subjects who stayed in the same group at follow-up measurement. The decreases in levels were noted during 4 years for TC, LDL-C, primarily for boys. The level of HDL-C decreased between baseline and first follow-up for both sexes and girls. Tracking, as measured by both correlation coefficients and persistence extreme quartiles, was evident for all of the lipids. The correlation coefficients of TC between baseline and 4 years later in boys and girls were 0.55 and 0.68, respectively. And the corresponding values for HDL-C were 0.58 and 0.69. More than 50% of adolescents who belonged to the highest quartile group in TC, HDL-C and LDL-C at the baseline were remained at the same group at the examination performed 2 years later for both sexes. The probability of remaining at the same group was more than 35% when examined 4 years later. The tracking phenomenon of TG was less evident compared with the other lipids. Percents of girls who stayed at the same group 2 years later and 4 years later were 42.9% and 25.7%, respectively. It was evident that serum lipid levels tracked in Korean adolescents. Researches with longer follow-up would be needed in he future to investigate the long-term change of lipids from adolescents to adults.
Summary
A methodological study on simplifying claims review system in medical insurance.
Suk Il Kim, Hyung Gon Kang, Han Joong Kim, Young Moon Chae, Myongsei Sohn, Myung Keun Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):640-650.
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After the introduction of National Medical Insurance in 1989, the medical demand has rapidly increased. The impact of increased medical demand was followed by an increase in the number of claims in need of review. We studied a new, fair method for reducing the number of claims reviewed. we analysed 90,583 outpatient claims submitted between september and october; claims were made for services given August of 1994. We finally suggested a screening system for claims review using a statistical method of discriminant analysis of the medical costs. The results were as follows. 1. In the cut-off group, age, days of medication, number of hospital or clinic visits, and total change were significantly high The cut-off rates according to the hospital-type and existence of accompanied disease were significantly different. 2. According to ICD, the cut-off rate was highest in peripheral enthesopathies and allied syndromes(20.76%), lowest in acute sinusitis(0.93%). The mean charges were significantly different according to ICD and existence of cut-off. 3. we build discriminant functions by ICD with such discriminant variables as patient age, sex, existence of accompanied disease, number of hospital or clinic visits, and 9 detailed hospital or clinic charges included in claim. 4. we applied the discriminant function for screening those claims that were expected to be cut-off. The sensitivities comprised from 40% to 70%, and specificities from 70% to 95% by ICD. Acute rhinitis had highest sensitivity(100.00%)and other local infections of skin and subcutaneous tissue had highest specificity(98.45%). The excepted number of cut-off was 17,762(19.61%). The total sensitivity was 49.62%, the total specificity was 82.57% and the error rate was 19.66%. We lacked economic analysis such as cost-benefit analysis. But, if the few method of screening claims using discriminant analysis were applied, the number of claims in need of review will reduce considerably.
Summary
Comparison of work measures for some physician services in Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Yeong Joo Hur, Myong Sei Sohn, Eun Cgeol Park, Hyung Gon Kang, Han Joong Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):623-639.
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We have never seen any method to cope basically with complicated situation and problems around medical reimbursement rates here in Korea since 1977 witnessed by the beginning of medical insurance. By the way researchers concerned are beginning to propose some kinds of innovative and detailed ideas to government these days. They are Diagnosis-related group(DRG)and Resource-based relative value scale(RBRVS). In the light of this situation it is so encouraging that our government can come up with that and move. In case of RBRVS research we have already been reaching even to the level of reviewing and revising methodology for its further development after naive pilot study on internal medicine and general surgery last year. However there might be something different conditions between USA and Korea to apply the same Dr. Hsiao's method and it must be vital to check so called 'total work approach' compared with 'intra-service work approach' before expanding to the whole medical fields. According to the 'Intra-service approach', the physician's work is supposed to be divided into three sub-works by the name of intraservice work, pre, and post service work. These sub-works, again should be merged together to be the pre-postwork subset through some statistical methods of the estimation process applied by Dr. Hsiao's methodology in RBRVS development later on. But in this paper that estimation process was not taken because we could have real values for all of those surveyed items related to just one specialty, OB & GY. Instead, we used some statistical comparison procedures relevant to demographic characteristics, reliability & validity and correlation analysis with American RVU(Relative value unit) between the total work and merged total work from intraservice work approach. The unit of analysis was individual physicians of OB & GY and 300 physicians were selected for each approach through statistical sampling method based on national population of OB & GY physicians in korea. And also with the thankful help of Advisory committee under Korean Association of OB & GY, questionnaires were made and mailed to the subjects, two times. As a result there were not any statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics between the two approaches except for the variable 'Response time for the questionnaire', but in other sections of comparisons, response rate, representative values, reliability & validity test, correlation analysis with American RVU, all showed 'Total approach' was not only more rational and statistically meaningful than ,'Intra-service approach' but also had considerable merits. But we are not absolutely sure about this paper's robustness. Because of some limitations, we'd rather like to suggest further researches should be followed. In that sense the first thing would be a research for the influence of doctor's haracteristics, especially 'frequency' on the rating of work and the way to define total work more clearly.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health