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Ho Kim 12 Articles
Trends in Body Mass Index and Associations With Physical Activity Among Career Soldiers in South Korea
Kyoung-Ki Bae, Ho Kim, Sung-Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(4):167-175.   Published online July 29, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.4.167
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objective

This study was designed to describe the trends in body mass index (BMI) during 6 years (2002 - 2008) and to identify associations between these trends and the amount of physical activity of South Korean career soldiers.

Method

This study targeted the 40 993 (38 857 men and 2136 women) of the 58 657 career soldiers who had undergone four (2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008) biennial medical examinations conducted by the National Health Insurance Corporation; 17 664 soldiers with missing data on height, weight, and physical activity were excluded. A linear mixed-regression model was used to categorize changes in BMI due to age versus those due to amount of physical activity.

Results

Career soldiers experienced significant increases in BMI compared with baseline data gathered in 2002. The increases in each age group were as follows: men aged 20- 29: 1.16, men aged 30 - 39: 0.61, men aged 40 - 49: 0.05, women aged 20- 29: 0.35, women aged 30- 39: 0.30, women aged 40-49: 0.26, and women aged 50- 59: 0.21. However, men aged 50 or older showed significant decreases (as high as 0.5) in BMI compared with baseline data obtained in 2002. They also experienced significant decreases in BMI compared with those who reported no physical activity. The differences between baseline and final BMIs were: 0.02 for men exercising 1- 2 times per week, -0.07 for men exercising 3-4 times per week, -0.19 for men exercising 5-6 times per week, -0.21 for men exercising seven times per week, -0.05 for women exercising 1- 2 times per week, -0.19 for women exercising 3- 4 times per week, -0.30 for women exercising 5-6 times per week, and -0.30 for women exercising seven times per week.

Conclusions

Obesity in South Korean career soldiers increased markedly between 2002 and 2008, and our data showed that the amount of physical activity was inversely related to increases in BMI. Policies to prevent obesity are needed to reduce this trend.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of military life on changes in body mass index of enlisted men: a cross-sectional study
    Bb Ni Lee, S W Bae, S Y Oh, J H Yoon, J Roh, J U Won
    BMJ Military Health.2022; 168(3): 218.     CrossRef
  • Association Between Diet, Physical Activity and Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and Bone Mineral Density of Soldiers of the Polish Air Cavalry Units
    Anna Anyżewska, Roman Łakomy, Tomasz Lepionka, Ewa Szarska, Ewelina Maculewicz, Andrzej Tomczak, Jerzy Bertrandt
    Nutrients.2020; 12(1): 242.     CrossRef
Assessment of Applicability of Standardized Rates for Health State Comparison Among Areas: 2008 Community Health Survey.
Geun Yong Kwon, Do Sang Lim, Eun Ja Park, Ji Sun Jung, Ki Won Kang, Yun A Kim, Ho Kim, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):174-184.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.174
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study shows the issues that should be considered when applying standardized rates using Community Health Survey(CHS) data. METHODS: We analyzed 2008 CHS data. In order to obtain the reliability of standardized rates, we calculated z-score and rank correlation coefficients between direct standardized rate and indirect standardized rate for 31 major indices. Especially, we assessed the change of correlations according to population composition (age and sex), and characteristics of the index. We used Mantel-Haenszel chi-square to quantify the difference of population composition. RESULTS: Among 31 major indices, 29 indices' z-score and rank correlation coefficients were over 0.9. However, regions with larger differences in population composition showed lower reliability. Low reliability was also observed for the indices specific to subgroups with small denominator such as 'permanent lesion from stroke', and the index with large regional variations in age-related differences such as 'obtaining health examinations'. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized rates may have low reliability, if comparison is made between areas with extremely large differences in population composition, or for indicies with large regional variations in age-related differences. Therefore, the special features of standardized rates should be considered when health state are compared among areas.
Summary

Citations

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  • Ambient air quality and subjective stress level using Community Health Survey data in Korea
    Myung-Jae Hwang, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Jong-Hun Kim, Youn Seo Koo, Hui-Young Yun
    Epidemiology and Health.2018; 40: e2018028.     CrossRef
  • Illustration of Calculating Standardized Rates Utilizing Logistic Regression Models: The National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS)
    Sang-Hoon Cho, Gunseog Kang, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2017; 42(1): 70.     CrossRef
  • Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles
    Yang Wha Kang, Yun Sil Ko, Yoo Jin Kim, Kyoung Mi Sung, Hyo Jin Kim, Hyung Yun Choi, Changhyun Sung, Eunkyeong Jeong
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(3): 211.     CrossRef
  • Health behavior affecting on the regional variation of standardized mortality
    Jin A Han, Soo Jeong Kim, Se Rom Kim, Ki Hong Chun, Yun Hwan Lee, Soon Young Lee
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2015; 32(3): 23.     CrossRef
  • Convergence-based analysis on geographical variations of the smoking rates
    Ji-Hye Lim, Sung-Hong Kang
    Journal of Digital Convergence.2015; 13(8): 375.     CrossRef
  • Overview of Korean Community Health Survey
    Young Taek Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Kay O Lee, Ho Kim, Jin Ho Chun, Su Young Kim, Duk-Hyoung Lee, Yun A Ghim, Do Sang Lim, Yang Wha Kang, Tae Young Lee, Jeong Sook Kim, Hyun Jo, Yoojin Kim, Yun Sil Ko, Soon Ryu Seo, No-Rye Park, Jong-Koo Lee
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2012; 55(1): 74.     CrossRef
Analysis for the Impact of Adulthood and Childhood Socioeconomic Positions and Intergenerational Social Mobility on Adulthood Health.
Jae Hee Seo, Ho Kim, Young Jeon Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):138-150.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.138
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
There are at least three conceptual models for the effects of the childhood social environment on adult health: the critical period model, the social mobility model, and the cumulative risk model. However, few studies have investigated all three different models within the same setting. This study aims to examine the impact of childhood and adulthood socioeconomic positions and intergenerational social mobility over the life course on the health in adulthood based both on the critical period model and the social mobility model. METHODS: This study was conducted on 9583 adults aged between 25 and 64 years old and they were the respondents to the Korea Welfare Panel Study (2006). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out, using the critical period model and the social mobility model out of the life course approaches, to look into the impact of childhood and adulthood socioeconomic positions and intergenerational social mobility on the health status in adulthood. RESULTS: Household income and occupation out of the adulthood socioeconomic position indicators had an independent influence on the adulthood health status. The childhood socioeconomic position indicators, except for the place of childhood residence, affected the adulthood health status even after adjustment for the adulthood socioeconomic position. The effect of intergenerational social mobility was also statistically significant even after adjusting for the adulthood socioeconomic position, but it became insignificant when the childhood socioeconomic position was additionally adjusted for. CONCLUSIONS: Adulthood health is indeed affected by both the childhood and adulthood socioeconomic positions as well as intergenerational social mobility. This result shows that a life course approach needs to be adopted when dealing with health issues.
Summary

Citations

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  • Impact of Childhood Socioeconomic Position on Self‐Rated Health Trajectories of South Korean Adults
    Joan P. Yoo, Min Sang Yoo
    Asian Social Work and Policy Review.2016; 10(1): 142.     CrossRef
  • Interaction Effects of Social Determinants Affecting School-Aged Children’s Health
    Mi Young Kim, Mee Sok Park
    Family and Environment Research.2016; 54(5): 515.     CrossRef
  • Grandparental education, parental education and child height: evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” birth cohort
    Man Ki Kwok, Gabriel M. Leung, Tai Hing Lam, Shirley S.L. Leung, C. Mary Schooling
    Annals of Epidemiology.2013; 23(8): 475.     CrossRef
  • Association between childhood adversities and adulthood depressive symptoms in South Korea: results from a nationally representative longitudinal study
    Seung-Sup Kim, Hyobum Jang, Hyoung Yoon Chang, Young Su Park, Dong-Woo Lee
    BMJ Open.2013; 3(7): e002680.     CrossRef
  • Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges
    Young-Ho Khang, Sang-il Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2012; 27(Suppl): S33.     CrossRef
  • Social Determinants of Smoking Behavior: The Healthy Twin Study, Korea
    Youn Sik Kim, Hansoo Ko, Changgyo Yoon, Dong-Hun Lee, Joohon Sung
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2012; 45(1): 29.     CrossRef
The Relationship between Physical Activity and Clustering of Metabolic Abnormalities in Children.
Hyun Jin Son, Mi Kyung Kim, Hyun Ja Kim, Ho Kim, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(6):427-433.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.6.427
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to assess the association between physical activity and the clustering of metabolic abnormalities among Korean children. The effect of substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for the time spent in inactivity was examined as well. METHODS: The study subjects were comprised of 692 (354 boys, 338 girls) 4th grade elementary school students. We used a modified form of the physical activity questionnaire that was developed in the Five-City Project. The subjects with clustering of metabolic abnormalities were defined as having two or more of the following five characteristics: waist circumference > or =90 %, systolic or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 %, fasting glucose > or =110 mg/dl, triglycerides > or =110 mg/dl and HDL cholesterol < or =40 mg/dl. We calculated the odds ratios to assess the effect of substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for time spent in inactivity. RESULTS: The risk of clustered metabolic abnormalities was inversely correlated with the increased time spent on moderate to vigorous physical activity, but the correlation was not significant. The odds ratio for clustering of metabolic abnormalities that represented the effect of substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for 30minutes of sedentary activity was 0.87 (95% CI=0.76-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for sedentary activity could decrease the risk of clustered metabolic abnormalities.
Summary

Citations

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  • Association between sedentary behavior, screen time and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents
    Xue Cheng, Qiya Guo, Lahong Ju, Weiyi Gong, Xiaoqi Wei, Xiaoli Xu, Liyun Zhao, Hongyun Fang
    BMC Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Risk Factors Among Korean Adolescents
    Mi-Ae You, Youn-Jung Son
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2012; 24(3): 464.     CrossRef
A Review of Power and Sample Size Estimation in Genomewide Association Studies.
Ae Kyung Park, Ho Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(2):114-121.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.2.114
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Power and sample size estimation is one of the crucially important steps in planning a genetic association study to achieve the ultimate goal, identifying candidate genes for disease susceptibility, by designing the study in such a way as to maximize the success possibility and minimize the cost. Here we review the optimal two-stage genotyping designs for genomewide association studies recently investigated by Wang et al(2006). We review two mathematical frameworks most commonly used to compute power in genetic association studies prior to the main study: Monte-Carlo and non-central chi-square estimates. Statistical powers are computed by these two approaches for case-control genotypic tests under one-stage direct association study design. Then we discuss how the linkagedisequilibrium strength affects power and sample size, and how to use empirically-derived distributions of important parameters for power calculations. We provide useful information on publicly available softwares developed to compute power and sample size for various study designs.
Summary

Citations

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  • Sample Size and Statistical Power Calculation in Genetic Association Studies
    Eun Pyo Hong, Ji Wan Park
    Genomics & Informatics.2012; 10(2): 117.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Increasing Control-to-case Ratio on Statistical Power in a Simulated Case-control SNP Association Study
    Moon-Su Kang, Sun-Hee Choi, In-Song Koh
    Genomics & Informatics.2009; 7(3): 148.     CrossRef
Effects of Air Pollution on Asthma in Seoul: Comparisons across Subject Characteristic.
Sun Young Kim, Ho Kim, Jaiyong Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(4):309-316.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Korean epidemiological studies have used reduced samples according to the subject's characteristics, such as the health services provided, the historical note with asthma, and age, to examine the acute effect of air pollution on asthma using the Korean National Health Insurance records. However, there have been few studies on whether the effects shown in these reduced samples are different from those of all samples. This study compared the effects of air pollution on asthma attacks in three reduced samples with those of entire samples. METHODS: The air pollution data for PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3 and weather conditions including temperature, relative humidity, and air pressure in Seoul, 2002, were obtained from outdoor monitoring stations in Seoul. The emergency hospital visits with an asthma attack in Seoul, 2002 were extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance records. From these, the reduced samples were created by health service, historical notes with asthma, and age. A case-crossover design was adopted and the acute effects of air pollution on asthma were estimated after adjusting for weather, time trend, and seasonality. The model was applied to each reduced sample and the entire sample. RESULTS: With respect to the health service, the effects on outpatients were similar to those for the total sample but were different for inpatients. These similar effect sizes were also observed in the reduced samples according to the historical note with asthma and age. The relative risks of PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3 among the reduced and entire samples were 1.03, 1.04-1.05, 1.02-1.03, 1.04-1.06, and 1.10-1.17, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear evidence to show a difference between the reduced samples and the entire samples.
Summary
Relationship between the Exposure to Ozone in Seoul and the Childhood Asthma-related Hospital Admissions according to the Socioeconomic Status.
Ji Young Son, Ho Kim, Jong Tae Lee, Sun Young Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(1):81-86.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A number of studies have reported associations between the ambient air pollution concentrations and various health outcomes. Especially, ozone is well known for primary risk factor of asthma attacks. The results of a recent study indicate that the size of the effect on health outcomes due to air pollution varied according to several conditions, including age, gender, race and the socioeconomic status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the associations of ozone with the childhood asthma hospitalizations as stratified by the socioeconomic status (SES) at the community level in Seoul, Korea, 2002. METHODS: SES at aggregated levels was measured on the basis of average regional health-insurance rate per citizen in the area. We applied the generalized additive model to analyze the effect of ozone on asthma after controlling for the potential confounding variables that were capable of influencing the results. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that the number of children who were hospitalized for asthma increased as the SES of the residence area decreased. The estimated relative risks of hospitalization for asthma, as stratified by the SES of the community level, were 1.12 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.25) in districts with the highest SES levels, 1.24 (95% CI=1.08-1.43) within the moderate SES levels, and 1.32 (95% CI=1.11-1.58) in the districts with the lowest SES levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis showed that exposure to air pollution did not equally affect the health status of individuals. This suggests that not only the biological-sensitivity markers, but also the SES of the subjects should be considered as potentially confounding factors.
Summary
Air Pollution and Respiratory Symptoms of School Children in a Panel Study in Seoul.
Bo Eun Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Hye sook Park, Ho Kim, Hyun Jung Lee, Yeon Kyoung Lee, Seung Joo Lee, Yun Chul Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):465-472.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of air pollution on the daily respiratory symptoms of elementary school children in Seoul. METHODS: Using the panel study design, we collected diary data for the children's respiratory symptoms during the 1st day~15th day of April, July, October and December in 2003 among the 2nd and 3rd grade elementary school students. We merged the respiratory symptom data with the ambient air pollution data that was monitored by Ministry of Environment. Using a generalized estimate equation, we evaluated the relationship between the daily symptoms of the subjects and the exposure to air pollution after controlling for various potential confounders. RESULTS: The nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure of the current day significantly increased the upper respiratory symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.24) and the lower respiratory symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=1.18, 95% CI=1.06-1.31) in the elementary school children. The sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in the current day was associated with the lower respiratory symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=1.12, 95% CI=1.01-1.25 for SO2; adjusted odds ratio=1.16, 95% CI=1.02-1.32 for CO). CONCLUSIONS: We found that exposure to air pollution affects the daily respiratory symptoms in children. This study suggests that the effect on children's health? due to the short term changes in air pollution levels needs to be considered as an important public health problem.
Summary
Prenatal Exposure to PM10 and Preterm Birth between 1998 and 2000 in Seoul, Korea.
Eun Hee Ha, Bo Eun Lee, Hye Sook Park, Yun Sang Kim, Ho Kim, Young Ju Kim, Yun Chul Hong, Eun Ae Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):300-305.   Published online November 30, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The exposure to particulate air pollution during the pregnancy has reported to result in adverse pregnancy outcome such as low birth weight, preterm birth, still birth, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). We aim to assess whether prenatal exposure of particulate matter less than 10 (m in diameter (PM10) is associated with preterm birth in Seoul, South Korea. METHODS: We included 382, 100 women who delivered a singleton at 25-42 weeks of gestation between 1998 and 2000. We calculated the average PM10 exposures for each trimester period and month of pregnancy, from the first to the ninth months, based on the birth date and gestational age. We used three different models to evaluate the effect of air pollution on preterm birth; the logistic regression model, the generalized additive logistic regression model, and the proportional hazard model. RESULTS: The monthly analysis using logistic regression model suggested that the risks of preterm birth increase with PM10 exposure between the sixth and ninth months of pregnancy and the highest risk was observed in the seventh month (adjusted odds ratio=1.07, 95% CI=1.01- 1.14). We also found the similar results using generalized additive model. In the proportional hazard model, the adjusted odds ratio for preterm births due to PM10 exposure of third trimester was 1.04 (95% CI=0.96-1.13) and PM10 exposure between the seventh month and ninth months of pregnancy was associated with the preterm births. CONCLUSIONS: We found that there were consistent results when we applied the three different models. These findings suggest that air pollution exposure during the third trimester pregnancy has an adverse effect on preterm birth in South Korea.
Summary
Assessment of the Availability of Health Insurance Data for Epidemiologic Study of Childhood Aseptic Meningitis.
Sue Kyung Park, Hae Kwan Cheong, Moran Ki, Young Mo Son, Ho Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):349-358.
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OBJECTIVES
Aseptic meningitis is a major cause of Korean childhood morbidity late spring and early summer. However, the nationwide incidences of the disease have not been reported. This study was conducted to evaluate the availability of National Health Insurance data (NHID) for the study of an epidemiological trend in the surveillance of aseptic meningitis in children. METHODS: All the claims, under A87, A87.8, and A87.9 by ICD-10, among children below 15 years of age, to the National Health Insurance Corporation, between January and December 1998, were extracted. A survey of the medical record of 3, 874 cases from 136 general hospitals was performed. The availability of the NHID was evaluated by the three following methods: 1) The diagnostic accuracy (the positive predictive value = proportion of the confirmed aseptic meningitis among the subjects registered as above disease-codes in NHID) was evaluated through a chart review, and according to age, gender, month and region of disease-occurrence. 2) The distribution of confirmed cases was compared with the distribution of total subjects from the NHID, for subjects in General hospitals, or the subjects surveyed. 3) The proportion of confirmed CSF test was confirmed, and the relating factor, which was the difference in CSF-test rate, analyzed. RESULTS: Among 3, 874 cases, CSF examinations were performed on 1, 845 (47.6%), and the CSF-test rates were different according to the medical utility (admission vs. OPD visit) and the severity of the symptoms and signs. The diagnostic accuracy for aseptic meningitis, and during the epidemic (May-Aug) and sporadic (Sept-Apr) periods, were 85.0 (1, 568/1, 845), 86.0 (1, 239/1, 440) and 81.2% (329/405), respectively. The distributions by age, sex, month or period (epidemic/sporadic) and region, in the confirmed cases, were similar to those in the NHID, in both the subjects at General hospitals and in those surveyed, to within +/-7%. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, the NHID for the subjects registered with an aseptic meningitis disease-code might be available for an epidemiological study on the incidence-estimation of childhood aseptic meningitis, as the NHID could include both the probable and definite cases. On the basis of this result, further studies of time-series and secular trend analyses, using the NHID, will be performed.
Summary
Summertime Heat Waves and Ozone : an Interaction on Cardiopulmonary Mortality? - Based on the 1994 Heat Wave in Korea -.
Joohon Sung, Ho Kim, Soo Hun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):316-322.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To explore the possible effect of an interaction between summertime heat waves and ozone on cardiopulmonary mortality during the 1994 heat wave in Korea. METHODS: The unusually hot summer of 1994 in Korea was defined as the heat wave in this study. We examined the associations of air pollutants with daily cardiopulmonary deaths between 1991-1995, considering the product term of the heat wave and each pollutant, weather and time trends. RESULTS: During the heat wave, while temperatures were uniformly higher than those of other summers, the within-heat-wave difference in mortality paralleled that in the regional ozone levels. In terms of the influence of the heat wave, the results of ozone were different to those of total suspended particles (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The ozone association (relative risk (RR) =1.036; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.018-1.054) was observed only under heat wave conditions, while the TSP (RR =1.006, 95% CI = 0.999-1.012) and the SO2 (RR =1.018, 95% CI = 1.011-1.024) associations were found under normal weather conditions (per interquartile increase of each pollutant; results of three pollutants model). The ozone association under heat wave was attributable to the statistical interaction between the heat wave and ozone. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the possibility of a biological synergy between the heat wave and ozone, one that is not evident between the heat wave and other major pollutants like particles or SO2.
Summary
Epidemiologic Methods and Study Designs for Investigating Adverse Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution.
Jong Tae Lee, Ho Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):119-126.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Air pollution epidemiologic studies are intrinsically difficult because the expected effect size at general environmental levels is small, exposure and misclassification of exposure are common, and exposure is not selective to a specific pollutant. In this review paper, epidemiologic study designs and analytic methods are described, and two nationwide projects on air pollution epidemiology are introduced. This paper also demonstrates that possible confounding issues in time-series analysis can be resolved and the impact on the use of data from ambient monitoring stations may not be critical. In this paper we provide a basic understanding of the types of air pollution epidemiologic study designs that be subdivided by the mode of air pollution effects on human health (acute or chronic). With the improvements in the area of air pollution epidemiologic studies, we should emphasize that elaborate models and statistical techniques cannot compensate for inadequate study design or poor data collection.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health