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Gap Soo Lee 6 Articles
Different Effect of Blood Lead on Zinc Protoporphyrin by Gender in Korean Lead Workers.
Hyun Cheol Ahn, Yong Bae Kim, Gap Soo Lee, Kyu Yoon Hwang, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):499-504.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate whether a relation between blood lead and zinc proto porphyrin(ZPP) was modified by gender in Korean lead workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,304 male and 101 female subjects in 1997. The relation between blood lead and ZPP were evaluated with linear, exponential, and quadratic models. Then, the different effect of gender on the relation was examined by adding the interaction terms in the each model. RESULTS: Mean+/-SD of blood lead and ZPP level was different between male(27.7+/-10 microgram /dl and 51.3+/-23.4 microgram/dl) and female subjects(22.5+/-9.2 microgram/dl and 78.7+/-38.6 microgram/dl). After adjusting for possible confounders, the effect modification by gender was significant in linear(beta=1.119, p<0.001), exponential(beta=Exp(0.008), p<0.05), and quadratic model(beta= 1.388, p<0.001). In separate analysis, a quadratic relation between blood lead and ZPP was shown in male lead workers(beta=0.036, p<0.001), but an exponential relation in female lead workers(n=Exp(0.029), p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the increasing rate of ZPP in female were always higher than in male lead workers, suggesting that females were more susceptible to occupational lead exposure than males.
Summary
The effect of smoking and drinking habit on the health status of lead workers.
Choong Koo Lee, Yong Bae Kim, Gap Soo Lee, Kyu Yoon Hwang, Hwa Sung Kim, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):708-718.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate the effect of smoking and drinking habit on the health status in lead using industries, 2,785 male workers in lead using industries (7 storage battery industries, 7 secondary smelting and related industries, and 4 primary metal and other manufacturing industries) were selected for this study. This study was carried out as a part of periodic health examination. Selected study variables were zinc protoporphyrin in whole blood (ZPP), SGOT and SGPT for laboratory test. Questionnaire for lead related symptoms and smoking and drinking habit was provided to all the workers and filled up by themselves and reconfirmed by physician. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The overall smoking and drinking rate of study population were 69.8% and 73.6%, respectively. While the smoking and drinking rate of storage battery workers were 68.8% and 72.3%, those of secondary smelting industries and other industries were 66.0% and 66.4% and 74.6 and 80.3% respectively. 2. While the mean values of blood ZPP of lead exposed workers were significantly higher than other group, those of SGOT of storage battery workers were significant higher than other worker. But there were no differences of mean values of other variables. 3. Smoking habit did not affect on the mean value of blood ZPP of workers in special health examination group, but there were significant differences of blood ZPP and SGOT between drinker and non-drinker. 4. Symptom prevalence of lead exposure were higher in drinking and smoking group than non-drinking and non-smoking group. 5. In multiple regression analysis of the total lead related symptoms, blood ZPP, SGOT, and SGPT as dependent variable, respectively, and age, work duration, blood ZPP, pack year and amount of alcohol drinking as independent variables, work duration, pack year, amount of alcohol drinking, age contributed to total symptoms; and age, work duration, pack year contributed to blood ZPP; and age, amount of alcohol drinking, work duration contributed to SGOT; and pack year contributed to SGPT.
Summary
The change of validity of blood zinc protoporphyrin test by different cut-off level in level workers.
Yong Bae Kim, Hyun Cheol Ahn, Young Hwangbo, Gap Soo Lee, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):741-751.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Measurement of blood lead (PbB) and blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) are most common biological indices to identify the individual at risk for excess or the health sequences by lead exposure. Because PbB is known most important and reliable index of lead exposure, PbB is often regarded as a gold standard to detect lead exposure. But in Korea PbB is a secondary test item of detailed health check-up with positive finding of screening test in most occasion. Our lead standard requires all lead workers to take annual heath-check twice a year for investigation of their health effect due to lead exposure. Blood ZPP is one of most important index to detect high lead absorption in lead workers as a screening test. Measurement of blood ZPP is known well to correlate with PbB in steady state of exposure in most lead workers and is often used as a primary screening test to detect high lead absorption of lead workers with the advantage of simplicity, easiness, portability and low cost. The current cut-off criteria of blood ZPP for further detailed health check-up is 100 ng/dl which is supposed to match the level of 40 ng/dl of PbB according to our standard. Authors tried to investigate the validity of current criteria of cut-off level(100 ng/dl) of blood ZPP and possible another better cut-off level of it to detect the lead workers whose PbB level over 40 ng/dl. The subjects in our study were 212 male workers in three small scale storage battery industries. Blood ZPP, PbB and hemoglobin(Hb) were selected as the indices of lead exposure. The results were as follows. 1. The mean of blood ZPP, PbB and Hb in lead workers were 79.5+/-46.7 ng/dl, 38.7+/-15.1 ng/dl, and 14.8+/-1.2 g/dl, respectively. There were significant differences in blood ZPP, PbB and Hb by industry(P<0.01). 2. The percents of lead workers whose blood ZPP were above 100 ng/dl in the group of work duration below 1, 1-4, 5-9 and above 10 years were 8.6%, 17.2%, 47.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. The percents of lead workers whose PbB were above 40 ng/dl in those were 31.4%, 40.4%, 71.4%, and 86.4%, respectively. 3. The percents of lead workers whose PbB were below 40 ng/dl, 40-59 ng/dl and above 60 ng/dl were 54.7%, 34.9% and 10.4%, respectively. Those of lead workers whose blood ZPP were below 100 ng/dl, 100-149 ng/dl and above 150 ng/dl were 79.2%, 13.7% and 7.1%, respectively. 4. Simple linear regression of PbB on blood ZPP was statistically significant(P<0.05) and as PbB was 40 ng/dl, blood ZPP was 82.1 ng/dl. 5. While the highest sensitivity and specificity of blood ZPP test to detect lead workers with PbB over 40 ng/dl were observed in the cut-off level of 50 ng/dl and 100 ng/dl of blood ZPP, respectively, the highest validity(sensitivity+specificity) of blood ZPP to detect lead workers with PbB over 40 ng/dl was observed in the cut-off level of around 70 ng/dl of blood ZPP. But even with optimal cut-off level of around 70 ng/dl of blood ZPP, still 25.0% of false negative and 20.7% false positive lead workers were found. As the result of this study, it was suggested that reconsideration of current blood ZPP cut-off of our lead standard from 100 ng/dl to somewhat lower level such as around 70 ng/dl and the inclusion of PbB measurement as a primary screening test for lead workers was highly recommended for the effective prevention of lead workers.
Summary
A study on lead exposure indices of male workers exposed to lead less than 1 year in storage battery industries.
Young Hwangbo, Yong Bae Kim, Gap Soo Lee, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(4):747-764.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study intended to obtain an useful information for health management of lead exposed measuring the lead exposure indices and workers and determine biological monitoring interval in early period of exposure by work duration in all male workers (n=433 persons) exposed less than 1 year in 6 storage battery industries and in 49 males who are not exposed to lead as control. The examined variables were blood lead concentration(PBB), Zinc-protoporphyrin concentration(ZPP), Hemoglobin(HB) and personal history; also measured lead concentration in air(PBA) in the workplace. According to the geometric mean of lead concentration in the air, the factories were grouped into three categories: A; When it is below 0.05mg/m3, B; When it is between 0.05 and 0.10mg/m3, and C; When it is above 0.10mg/m3. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The means of blood lead concentration(PBB), ZPP concentration and hemoglobin(HB) in all male workers exposed to lead less than 1 year in storage battery industries were 29.5+/-12.4 microgram/100ml, 52.9+/-30.0 microgram/100ml and 15.2+/-1.1 gm/100ml. 2. The means of blood lead concentration(PBB), ZPP concentration and hemoglobin(HB) in control group were 5.8+/-1.6 microgram/100ml, 30.8+/-12.7 microgram/100ml and 15.7+/-1.6 microgram/100ml, being much lower than that of study group exposed to lead. 3. The means of blood lead concentration and Zpp concentration among group A were 21.9+/-7.6 microgram/100ml, 41.4+/-12.6 microgram/100ml; those of group B were 29.8+/-11.6 microgram/100ml, 52.6+/-27.9 microgram/100ml; those of group C were 37.2+/-13.5 microgram/100ml, 66.3+/-40.7 microgram/100ml. Significant differences were found among three factory group(P<0.01) that was classified by the geometric mean of lead concentration in the air, group A being the lowest. 4. The mean of blood lead concentration of workers who have different work duration(month) was as follows; when the work duration was 1-2 month, it was 24.1+/-12.4 microgram/100ml,; When the work duration was 3-4 month, it was 29.2+/-13.4 microgram/100ml; and it was 28.9+/-34.5 microgram/100ml for the workers who had longer work duration than other. Significant differences were found among work duration group(P<0.05). 5. The mean of ZPP concentration of workers who have different work duration(month) was as follows; When the work duration was 1 2 month, it was 40.6 18.0 g/100ml, When the work duration was 3-4 month, it was 53.4+/-38.4 microgram/100ml; and it was 51.5+/-60.4 microgram/100ml for the workers who had longer work duration than other. Significant differences were found among work duration group(P<0.05). 6. Among total workers(433 person), 18.2% had PBB concentration higher than 40 microgram/100ml and 7.1% had ZPP concentration higher than 100 microgram/100ml; In workers of factory group A, those were 0.9% and 0.0%; In workers of factory group B, those were 17.1% and 6.9%; In workers of factory group C, those were 39.4% and 15.4%. 7. The proportions of total workers(433 person) with blood lead concentration lower than 25 microgram/100ml and ZPP concentration lower than 50 microgram/100ml were 39.7% and 61.9%, respectively; In workers of factory group A, those were 65.5% and 82.3%; In workers of factory group B, those were 36.1% and 60.2%; In workers of factory group C, those were 19.2% and 43.3%. 8. Blood lead concentration (r=0.177, P<0.01), ZPP concentration (r=0.135, P<0.01), log ZPP (r=0.170, P<0.01) and hemoglobin (r=0.096, P<0.05) showed statistically significant correlation with work duration (month). ZPP concentration (r=0.612, P<0.01) and log ZPP(r=0.614, P<0.01) showed statistically significant correlation with blood lead concentration. 9. The slopes of simple linear regression between work duration(month, independent variable) and blood lead concentration(dependent variable) in workplace with low air concentration of lead was less steeper than that of poor working condition with high geometric mean air concentration of lead. The study result indicates that new employees should be provided with biological monitoring including blood lead concentration test and education about personal hygiene and work place management within 3~4 month.
Summary
Follow-up Management State of Lead Battery Workers in Periodic Health Examination.
Gap Soo Lee, Young Hwangbo, Yong Bae Kim, Hwa Sung Kim, Jung Oh Ham, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee, Jung Hur
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(4):733-746.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the follow-up management state and related factor of lead battery workers in periodic health examination as part of program of group occupational health service, author studied 293 workers with questionnaire on knowledge of results and follow-up management state and related factors, and compared the responses to their periodic health examination result charts. The results were as follows: 1. 252(86%) workers responsed that they had received the health examination result chart, but only 116(39.6%) workers responsed that they had been educated or explained about the result of health examination, and 11(57.9%) workers among 19 workers with non-occupational disease D, 101(44.3%) workers among 228 workers with non-occupational disease C, and 19(28.4%) workers among 67 workers with occupational disease C knew accurately their health examination results. 2. 78(24.8%) of the workers responsed that they had follow-up management, and contents of follow-up management were follow-up(36.6%), out-patient treatment(31%), change worksite(8.5%), temporary retirement(7.0%) and others(16.9%). 3. Most of the workers responsed that the health examination were necessary, but three-fourths of the workers responsed that the health examination had been superficial or that they didn't know. 4. In this study, follow-up management show significant association with only explanation or education about health examination result chart.
Summary
A Study on Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase Activities of Office Workers in a Certain Industrial Complex Area.
Hwa Sung Kim, Gap Soo Lee, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(3):547-556.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to identify the necessary information of biochemical indices for renal effect of lead for the early detection in medical surveillance of lead worker, the reference values of urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase(NAG) activities were studied with 205 office workers in one industrial complex area who were not exposed to lead occupationally. While study variables selected for lead exposure were blood lead (pbB), blood zinc protoporphyrin(ZPP) and delta-aminolevulinic acid (DALA) in urine, those for renal effect were urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase(NAG), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(cr), serum uric acid (Ua), and urinary total protein (U-Tp). The results obtained were as follows: 1. The mean values of blood lead, ZPP and DALA in all subjects were 14.39+/-4.02 microgram/dl, 21.61+/-8.00 microgram/dl, and 2.73+/-0.90 microgram/l respectively. 2. The mean value of urinary NAG activities in all subjects was 3.51+/-2.01 U/l. The mean value of urinary NAG activities, which calculated from NAG activities divided by urinary creatinine concentration (CNAG), was 5.42+/-5.53 U/g creatinine and logarithmic normal distributed. 3. The reference value of urinary NAG activity was 12.06 U/g creatinine (95% CI=10.57-14.76U/g creatinine). 4. Logarithmic CNAG(r=0.781 P<0.01), U-TP(r=0.670 p<0.01) and ZPP (r=0.172 p<0.05)showed statistically significant correlation with CNAG.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health