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Doohie Kim 19 Articles
An Epidemiologic Study on an Outbreak of Dermatosis Associated with Moths at a Factory.
Hyung Sul Lim, Cheol Jung, Doohie Kim, Yeol Oh Sung, Jung Ran Kim, Yoo Hang Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):359-370.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An outbreak of dermatosis occurred at a machinery manufacture factory in kyongju on Aug 1995. Authors conducted a questionnaire survey among 92 workers in the factory and a dermatologist examined their skin lesions. Authors also collected moths and identified them. The results are as follows; 1. Forty-two cases of dermatosis were identified with attack rate of 45.7%. Attack rate was not different by company, age, sex, educational level and duration of employment. Attack rate was 47.8% among productive workers, 25.0% among clerical workers and 100.0% among patrolmen. 2. Two cases among 42 dermatosis cases and three subjects among 50 non-cases had a history of same dermatosis last year. Four of dermatosis cases had a history of dermatosis among their family members. 3. skin lesions of the cases were scattered or grouped rice-sized erythematous papules or vesicles. Duration of dermatosis from the onset to the time of survey was from one day to more than 30 days. The most frequent site of skin lesion was the arms(81.0%), and it was also observed at the neck(47.6%), abdomen(45.2%), chest(42.9%), legs(38.1%) and back(35.7%). skin lesion was aggravated with sweating(31.0%), after shower(16.7%) and with scratching(l1.9%). 4. Moths were collected and identified as Euproetis subflava(Bremer). Many poisons stings were observed on their wngs which is harmful to human. 5. Contact with moths' wing droppings to two authors on their forearms for provocation resulted in severe immediate pain followed by prolonged pruritus. Erythematous macules quickly appeared and suoceeded by firm wheal-like red papules. Authors thought that the outbreak of dermatosis was brought about by Euproetix subflava(Bremer). Further studies on the factors contributing to the prosperity of the moths in this area are needed.
Summary
Temporary Threshold Shift of Vibration Sensation by Dental Handpiece.
Seong Ah Kim, Jong Young Lee, Doohie Kim, Soon Woo Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):765-772.
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This study was performed to investigate the possibility of temporary threshold shift (TTS) of vibration sense could induced by exposure to high-frequency vibration or by work position taking by dentists in drilling or polishing. The vibratory perception thresholds (VPT) of 28 healthy men were measured on the index fingertip pulp of dominant hand at 250Hz. The vibrating tool used in test was a low-speed handpiece of 34,000 rpm. For the TTS test, the dominant hand was exposed to high-frequency vibration and to work position for five minutes, respectively. The VPTs before and after vibratory exposure were 23.5+/-3.5 dB, 30.8+/-4.2 dB, respectively and VPT after work position was 23.7+/-4.6 dB. The difference between before and after vibartory exposure was statistically significant (P<0.001). The correlation of height, weight and BMl with baseline VPTs was not statistically significant. Also, there was no difference of VPTs by smoking. These results suggest that high-frequency vibration from dental handpieces might cause the impairment of vibration sensation.
Summary
Incidence of the Needle-Stick Injuries in Medical Students Among Clinical Training.
Wan Seoup Park, Yun Kyung No, Jong Young Lee, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(3):403-410.
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A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the experience of the needle stick injuries in 144 seniors of a medical school during the previous 10 months. one hundred and five of them (73%) had responded. About sixty-nine percent(72 cases) of the respondents had suffered at least one injury and there had been 129 injuries in total. Seventy-eight(56.6%) of the injuries took place at the time of the venipuncture. The emergency and operating room incurred 76.7 % and 23.3% of the injury, respectively. Injuries with bleeding account for 50.4%. None of the respondents was systematically educated about the prevention of injury. This survey shows that the needle-stick injury is a great risk for the medical students' health, and that educational effort for its prevention is warranted.
Summary
A Survey on Physical Complaints Related with Farmers' Syndrome of Vinylhouse and Non-vinylhouse Farmers.
Ju Young Lee, Jung Han Park, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(2):258-273.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To compare the physical complaints of vinylhouse farmers with those of non-vinylhouse farmers, a personal interviews on 250 and 142 vinylhouse farmers were conducted in Sungjoo county in Kyungpook province selected by a random sampling from July 5 to July 10, 1993. Blood pressure of the subjects was also measured. Vinylhouse farmers had a higher average age, larger family size, shorter experience of farming, more working hours per day and working days per year and higher annual income than non-vinylhouse farmers. The frequency of preticide spray of the vinylhouse farmer was 3.4times on the average in June 1993 as compared with 2.0 times of non-vinylhouse farmers, and 16.7 times for the vinylhouse farmers during the last one year while it was 8.3 times for the non-vinylhouse farmers in the same period. While 39.6% of vinylhouse farmers experienced pesticide intoxication symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, itching, and skin irritation, etc. during the month of June, 25.4% of non-vinylhouse farmers experienced such symptoms. The most frequent symptoms among eight symptoms that constitute the farmers' syndrome were lumbago, numbness of hand or foot shoulder pain and dizziness regardless of sex and type of farming. Prevalence of the farmers' syndrome in male and female among vinylhouse farmers were 22.1%, 43.4%, respectively, and the prevalence in non-vinylhouse farmers was 23.2% for male and 50.7%for female. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of farmers' syndrome between vinylhouse and non-vinylhouse farmers. However, The prevalence on female was about 2 times higher than that of male When the effects of other factors were adjusted by multiple logistic regression for farmers' syndrome, the prevalence in female was 3.0 times higher than that of male. The prevalence of farmers' syndrome was increased as the age of farmers increased on both vinylhouse and non-vinylhouse farmers, and adjusted odds ratio of farmers' syndrome increased by 3% as the age increased by 1 year Adjusted odds ratio of Farmers' syndrome in farmers who experienced pesticide intoxication during the month of June was 3.7times higher than that of farmers who did not have such experience. While the prevalence of hypertension in male and female non-vinylhouse farmers were 22.4%, 13.7%, respectively, the prevalence in vinylhouse farmers were 13.5% for male and 12.0% for female. However, there was no association between farmers' syndrome and hypertension. It was found in this study that the vinylhouse farmers are at a high risk of pesticide intoxication, which is associated with the common physical complaints. To reduce such risk it is necessary to develop farming methods which do not require the pesticide of may use less pesticide, a safer method of pesticide spraying, and the protective equipments which can be worn at a high temperature and have a better protective effect. Also education of farmers for the correct methods of ventilation after pesticide spraying in the vinylhouse and wearing the protective equipments may be considered as a supportive method. Since inappropriate posture at work and intensive labor may cause farmers' syndrome, it is recommended to develop farming tools which reduce physical burden and take a rest and exercise periodically during work. It is necessary to strengthen the hypertension management program of the Kyungpook province, because the prevalence of hypertension was as high as about 15%.
Summary
Long term noise exposure of steel mill workers, hearing loss and blood pressure.
Myung Wha Ha, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(4):496-506.
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A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effect of long term noise exposure on blood pressure among steel mill workers. The workers participated in periodic medical examinations performed from August 27 to September 6 in 1990. Examined were 1,034 workers with high-level noise exposure(average 91.8+/-5.2 dB{AA)), and 390 workers with low-level noise exposure(average 75.2+/-4.6 dB(A)). No significant difference was found in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the two exposure groups. Prevalence of hypertension (> or = 160 mmHg systolic or > or = 100 mmHg diastolic) was higher in a younger age group (< or = 40 years old) of high-level noise exposure than of low-level noise exposure. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Furthermore, in younger ages, prevalence of. hypertension appeared to be higher in the hearing loss group (> or = 25dB at 1000 Hz or > or = 40 dB at 4000 Hz in at least one ear) than in the normal hearing group. From multiple regression analysis, hearing loss, body mass index, age, alcohol and family history of hypertension were proven to be predictors of diastolic blood pressure (p<0.02). When regression was performed for each age group, hearing loss was a strong predictor of diastolic pressure in the younger age group (p<0.01).
Summary
Formaldehyde exposure in the plywood manufacturing factory.
Myung Wha Ha, Doohie Kim, Hyun Sul Lim, Sang Hu Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(1):37-44.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In the plywood manufacturing factory established in 1979, female 3 workers who had exposed to adhesives containing formaldehyde for more than 48 months of duration suffered from eye, nasal, oral, throat and skin irritation and dyspnea as chief complaints. The actual level of the exposure to formaldehyde were not estimated when the exposed workers started to have above symptoms. The environmental monitoring of workplace was measured on April 25, 1990, and the concentration of formaldehyde revealed 0.2 ppm, however the exhaustive ventilatory system was already installed at that time. Twenty six subjects from entire factory were examined by questionnaire, physical examination and spirometry, etc. on August 22, 1990. Significant difference was observed in symptoms and signs of nasal, oral and throat irritation between teh exposed group with longer duration and that with short duration. When the exposed group with longer duration was compared to the group of nonexposed, symptoms and signs of nasal, oral, throat and skin irritation, chest tightness and dullness were significantly increased in the former group. The results of the spirometric test showed that the forced vital capacity and the forced expiratory volume at 1 second were decreased amont the exposed group with longer duration but not significant.
Summary
Effect of Zinc Administration on the Autistic Children.
Kyeong Dong Chung, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(3):309-315.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc administration on the autistic children. the subject diagnosed as infantile autism were 24 male and 10 female children of a special school in Taegu city. Control group were selected from 1 : 2 ratio matched with cases on sex and age. The results were as follows. In female autistic group, the mean content of zinc in hair was significantly lower than control group, but in male the result was inverse at all age group. The content of zinc in hair showed significant correlation with age in male autistic group and control group. Zinc content of hair, age and sex accounted for 37.2% of the variance of autistic score and the most significant variable was zinc content. Autistic group were divided into two group. Group I which zinc content of hair below 150 ppm were administrated with multi-vitamin contained 10mg of zinc, Group II which zinc content of hair above 150 ppm were administrated with placebo. Total administration period was eight weeks. In zinc administration group, there was a decreasing tendency of autistic score as the zinc content of hair was increased but the relationship was not statistically significant.
Summary
Relationship of Hair Copper and Mercury Contents to Personality in Chronic Schizophrenia.
Doohie Kim, Young Woo Kang, Soon Woo Park, Kuen Hoo Lee, Young Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(3):296-308.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The relationship between copper and mercury contents in the scalp hair and chronic schizaphrenia was investigated. The samples of scalp hair were collected from 80 male chronic schizophrenic patients at the age from 20 to 20, who were hospitalized in the National Psychiatric Hospital in Seoul. As the napes and the Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI) was performed also. The copper and mercury contents were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Significantly higher T-score of MMPI was seen in patients group for Hypochondriasis Scale (Hs), Depression Scale (D), Psychopathic Deviate Scale (Pd), Paranoia Scale (Pa), Psychasthenia Scale (Pt), Schizophrenia Scale (Sc) subscales than control group, and the frequency distribution by T-score was also significantly different between the patient and the control group for above scales. The content of copper in the hair of patient group was significantly higher than control group. In the case of mercury, the mean value of patient group was significantly higher than control group. Between the value of copper and mercury, statistically significant negative correlation (r=-0.25) was found. When grouped by the T-score of MMPI, there was no difference of copper contents between T-score subgroup at all MMPI scale. But the mercury contents showed significant difference between T-score subgroup at Pt, Sc scale. When compared between the group of above 70 T-score and the group of less than 70, the mercury contents of Pa, Pt, Sc scale of above 70 T-score group were significantly higher than the group of less than 70. In other scales, the mercury content of the above 70 group were higher than the group of less than 70 except Mf scale, although there were no statistically significances. In D, Pa, Sc scales, as the T-score of MMPI increased, the contents of mercury also increased. When divided into the patient group and the control group, the copper contents of the patient groups were significantly lower than the control group at each T-score scale in most MMPI scales. In the case of mercury, the value of patient group were significantly lower than the control group in the less than 44 scale of D, in the 60~69 scale of Pd, in the 45~59 scale of Mf, in the 60~69 scale of Ma, in the less than 44 of Si. These results suggest that the effects of the deficiency of copper or high intake of mercury on schizophrenia and personality may be of possible value. Thus further studies are necessary to determine whether schizophrenia and personality formation would be attributed to copper deficiency or mercury intake.
Summary
Frequency and Pattern of Traffic Accidents in Different Atmospheric Phenomena.
Doohie Kim, Jung Mi Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):98-105.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to fine out the relationship between traffic accidents and atmospheric phenomena, we have analyzed 2,562 cases, one tenth of the total traffic accidents occurred in Taegu city for a year in 1988. The meteorological elements observed by Taegu Weather Bureau were used. It was divided into two largy categories: the patterns of accident as human injuries and destructions of car. When the accidents were overlapped in each other, it was considered as human injury. Human injuries were subdivided into three parts: death, severe damage. The average number of daily traffic accidents including human injuries were lowest in winter of four seasons. The accident patterns in accordance with the seasons showed statistically significant difference. The frequency was the highest as 3.3 case in an hour at 25.1-30.0 degrees C of atmospheric temperature, the rate of human injury showed the increase by the increased temperature. But there were not significant. Also it was the highest as 3.7 cases in less than 31% of humidity and the rate of human injury was the highest at 41-50%, but not significant. And it was the increasing tendency as wind speed increase, and the rate of human injury was the highest at 6.1-7.0m/sec, but it was not significant. In relation to precipitation, and visibility, were the highest as 5.4 cases at 5.1-10.0 mm of rainfall, the rate of human injury was increased by the increased precipitation and showed statistically significant. And it was highest within 6 Km of visibility, but the rate of the human injury was the lowest within same distance, and also showed significance. The accidents were higher with snow on the road, but the rate of human injury was comparatively lower, but no significance.
Summary
Hair Heavy Metal Contents in Mentally Retarded Children IV: In Association with Copper.
Doohie Kim, Sang Soong Nam, Soon Woo Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(4):518-527.
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The relationship between copper content in scalp hair and mental retardation was investigated. Samples of scalp hair were collected from 297 mentally retarded children who were students in one of two schools providing special educational services, one, consisted of children living in an orphan home, the other, children living with parents. For comparison, 117 scalp hair samples were collected from the children who had got average or above average academic achievement in a regular elementary school. Hair samples were taken from the nape of the neck and the copper content was determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (IL 551). There was no statistically significant difference in scalp copper levels across different age groups except female orphan group, but no trend or correlation between copper contents and age was found. The hair copper contents of the group accompanied by Down's syndrome and unknown group were significantly lower than that of control group in both sex, and in the case of accompanied by epilepsy or autism, lower than control group in male. Although the results of this study show no evidence that mental retardation has owed to copper deficiency, the possibility of copper deficiency in their fetal or infant age could not be ruled out. Thus further study is needed to determine whether mental retardation could be attributed to copper deficiency. through the examinations about their living environments, dietary pattern, eating habit and the impact of copper deficiency on brain development.
Summary
Comparison of Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue and Salivary pH among Teachers between Special School and Elementary.
Soon Ja Lee, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(4):506-517.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Two hundred and fifty teachers of special school (for the disabled) and 414 elementary school teachers were selected for the targets in order to compare their degrees of fatigue symptoms and to find what kind of relationship is between subjective symptoms of fatigue and pH is the saliva. It was 30 minutes before their closing hours on April 21th, 1989 that their physical, mental and neuro-sensory symptoms and salivary pH were examined. The test results are summarized as follows: It is observed that an interrelation between subjective fatigue and pH in their saliva shows a significant relationship between physical and neuro-sensory symptoms in a sense of statistics. The rate of subjective fatigue complained by the special teachers is higher than that by the elementary teachers. In the case of salivary pH, the special teachers' is as a whole lower than the elementary teachers'. The complain rates in each item, checked of special teachers are generally higher than those of the elementary teachers. It is in the mental symptom related item that there are many sub-items which show significant difference. According to the average of salivary pH based on the degrees of complained symptoms shown in the pH related items, the salivary pH of the group with complained symptoms is lower than that of the group without complained symptoms. In the rate of complaints, by sex, both sexes of the special teachers show high ones but salivary pH is low. The complain rate of mental symptoms shown by female group from the special teacher is significantly higher(p<0.05). By age, the group in their thirties from the special teachers show the higher complain rate of mental symptoms (29.3%) and the lower salivary pH (p<0.05) than that (15.1%) of the elementary teachers belonging to the same age category. However, the special teachers in their forties show the lower complain rate of physical symptoms that of the elementary teachers (p<0.05). From the viewpoint of their working years, the special teachers below 14 years and elementary teachers above 15 years in their career show high complain rates. Among those who belong to the category of 10-14 working years, the special teachers show the higher complain rate of mental symptoms than that of their counterparts. In the case of the salivary pH, the special teachers of all working-year categories show the higher pH than that of the elementary teachers. But there is not significantly difference. From the viewpoint of sleeping hours in the previous night of the questionnaire surveyed, among those who slept for over 7 hours, the special teachers show the higher complain rate of mental symptoms with significant difference, but the lower salivary pH than that of their counterparts. From the viewpoint of their marital status, existence of disease history, the special teachers show the higher complain rate of subjective fatigue, but the lower salivary pH than that of the elementary teachers respectively. According to the above results, the special teachers generally show the higher complain rate of subjective fatigue, the lower salivary pH, and the higher complain rate of mental symptoms. To prevent the possible accumulation of mental fatigue of the special teachers, ways and means to make use of leisure time, recreational facilities are necessarily provided. Since the degree of fatigue and salivary pH have a correlation to some extent, it is necessary that further continuous studies on the correlation between the degrees of fatigue and salivary pH should be pursued.
Summary
Hair Heavy Metal Contents in Mentally Retarded Children III: In Association with Mercury.
Ki Hwan Han, Bong Ki Jang, Soon Woo Park, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(3):368-379.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The relationship between mercury level of hair and mental retardation was investigated. The 297 subjects with mental retardation were drawn from two schools providing special educational services, one, consisted of children living in an orphan home, another, children with parents. The 117 control subjects were drawn from whom had got average or above average academic achievement in a regular elementary school. Hair sample were taken from the nape of the neck and the mercury analysis was carried out on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer(IL 551). There was no relationship between mercury contents and age, and there was a statistically significant difference in mercury contents between male and female in the mentally retarded children living with parents. Children in the retarded group had significantly higher mercury contents compared with control group except the female group with parents. Also, the mercury levels in the retarded group living in an orphan home were significantly higher than that of the retarded group with parents. The concomitant diseases were Down's syndrome, epilepsy, cerebral palsy and autism. There were statistically significant differences in hair mercury levels in the cases of accompanying Down's syndrome and cerebral palsy in male and Down's syndrome and autism in female compared with the control group of the same sex. The most accompanying handicap was speech disturbance(40.7%) and the others were crippled, emotional disturbance etc. The percentages of double handicap were 66.7% among 6 persons exceeding 6ppm of their hair mercury contents, 10.4% among 3~6 ppm and 15.7% among the group of 3ppm or less. The findings of this study suggest that the more opportunities of exposure to mercury in mentally retarded children may have occurred, so it can not be excluded the possibility of mercury as a contributing factor to mental retardation. Therefore, the causal relationship between mercury levels and mental retardation should be established through the examinations about their living environments, dietary pattern, eating habit etc.
Summary
Hair Heavy Metal Contents in Mentally Retarded Children II: In Association with Cadmium and Zinc.
Soon Woo Park, Jong Young Lee, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(2):215-222.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The relationship between cadmium level and mental retardation was investigated. The 297 subjects with mental retardation were drawn from two schools providing special educational services, one, consisted of children living in an orphan home, another, children with parents. The 117 control subjects were drawn from whom had got average or above average academic achievement in a general elementary school. Hair sample was taken from the nape of the neck and the cadmium and zinc analysis were carried out on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (IL 551). Children in the retarded group had significantly higher cadmium levels compared with control but not in zinc levels. There was no relationship between metal concentrations and age except control male group, which showed significant positive linear relationship in zinc, and there was no difference between sex in both metal except the male orphan group in cadmium. In the orphan group, there was relationship between severity of retardation and cadmium concentration in both sex but not in retarded children with parents. No difference in cadmium levels between the group with Down's syndrome, one of causes of mental retardation and the control group suggested the cadmium as a possible cause of mental retardation. In the case of accompanying autism, zinc level was significantly lower than that of other accompanying disease. Although not establishing an etiologic relationship, findings of this study suggest that there are some influences of cadmium on mental retardation, and call for a continuing study.
Summary
Hair Heavy Metal Contents in Mentally Retarded Children I: In Association with Lead.
Doohie Kim, Ock Bae Kim, Bong Ki Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(1):125-135.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This paper was carried out to study on correlation between mentally retardation and lead and zinc. The subjects were 297 mentally retarded children: 132 of Bomyung special school and Sunmyung, which were located in Taegu city of Korea. The former had their parents but the latter had not. The control group 63 children were randomly seleted from the Dong-in primary school near to Medical School of Kyungpook National University. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, model IL-551 connected with CTF atomizer(IL. 655) was used for the analysis of lead and zinc. The mean value of lead in hair of mentally retarded children was 14.97 3.71ppm which is significantly higher than that of control group, 11.36 2.83ppm. But the content of zinc was not significant in both groups. In the lead there was no significant correlation to age but significant negative correlation to IQ. Zinc showed significant correlation to age but not to IQ. Among the handicapped children, no signigicant correlation between orphan group and non orphan group. Handicaps of mentally-retarded children were speech impairment, emotional disturbance, double and triple handicaps, sensory impairment and abnormal dietary patterns. There were significantly higher contents of lead compared with normal group, except the latter two groups. The disease conditions of mentally retarded children were mongolism, autism, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and microcephaly. In comparing with mongolism, significant difference were existent only on the cerebral palsy and group of unknown etiology. We attempted to divide their past history into external etiology and internal etiology, but could not find significant difference. In view of the whole results, the relationship between mentally-retarded children and lead was presumed to be the early time exposure rather than long interval exposure during growth and the contact opportunity was considered important subject in maternal and child health care.
Summary
Effect of Dietary Calcium, Casein, and Suet on the Accumulation of Cadmium in Mice.
Kyu Sang Jung, Doohie Kim, Kyung Dong Jung
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):340-350.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to clarify the effect of dietary calcium, casein, and suet on the accumulation of cadmium in mice. It was performed for 30 days, from April 11 to May 10 1988. 90 mice were divided into 4 experimental groups and control group with 6 mice each dietary group, and measured survival rate, body weight, and weight ratio of organ to body. The contents of cadmium in liver, kidney, spleen, muscle and skin with hair, and faces were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer after sacrifice by anesthesia. After 30 days, the survival rate of control group was 100%, but 66.7% in group IV(basal+Cd+Ca) with single dose of 100 microgram cadmium and with free-intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium, and group V(basal diet+Cd+suet) with free-intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium. The rate of weight gain in the case of single dose of 100 microgram cadmium was highest in group IV as 42.3% and lowest in group V as 26.0%, whereas in the cases of free intake group IV was highest as 24.0% and group II(basal diet+Cd) was lowest as 11.6%. The body weight, in the case of single dose of 100 microgram cadmium showed no increase until 5th day after acute poisoning. But in the case of free intake group, it showed very increase through all the breeding period. The weight ratio of organ to body were lowest in the liver of group II in both occasions. The most of cadmium administered were excreted through feces within 2 days after single dose of 100 microgram cadmium. The contents of cadmium in each group were significantly higher than those of control group. In the liver, kidney, spleen and muscle, group II showed the highest level in both occasions of 100 microgram single dose and free intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium. In the skin with hair, group II of the occasion with single dose of 100 microgram and group V with free intake showed the highest level. And the contents of cadmium in tissue were markedly higher in the occasion of free intake of water containing 50ppm cadmium. From the above results I would conclude that the addition of casein and calcium are effective in the inhibition of intension absorption of cadmium esp. by calcium.
Summary
Effect of Drinking and Smoking on AST and ALT Activities.
Doohie Kim, Seol Seo
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):329-339.
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The study is carried out to investigate the effect of drinking and smoking for the activities of aspartate aminotransferse(AST, or GOT) and alanine amintransferse(ALT or GPT), from December 25, 1986 to April 30, 1987. The male physical examinees for employment, 900 who had visited to the Taegu Medical Center were subjected. And the positive cases of HBs-Ag, Anti-HBs and skin test for Clonorchis sinensis were excluded. The general characters of drinking and smoking pattern were introduced by interview with questionnaire provided for. In drinking cases, the longer duration was significantly effected the higher rate of abnormality in AST and ALT level. But the amount and the frequency were not. It was not appeared effects by mackgulri which is a Korean traditional wine and small amount of beers. In smoking cases, also same pattern. The age was related in all cases. By the way, when the effect is related the positive results with other factors; HBs-Ag, Anti-HBs, skin test for clonorchiasis and harmful occupational history, it is higher abnormal rate of AST and ALT in the duplicated cases with two factors or more. Particularly in HBs-Ag positive cases, those who had smoking was the highest in rate of abnormality, and drinking was the follows. In correlation matrix among seven factors; HBs-Ag, age, drinking amount, drinking period, drinking frequency, smoking amount and smoking period, correlation coefficient was significant between the abnormal rate and to with age, drinking period, smoking period, and smoking amount.
Summary
Contents of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in Bone, Muscle and Fin of Carassius carassius from Middle Stream of Nakdong River, Korea.
Doohie Kim, Yong Gu Kim, Bong Ki Jang
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):307-319.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to determine the contents of lead, cadmium and zinc, the tissues of the crussian carp, Carassius carassius, collected from the middle streams of the Nakdong river were examined. During the dry season from 8 to 15, March, 1987, six loci were selected to sample the fish and river water; five of them were the midstreams of the Nakdong river i.e., the vicinities of the Andong dam, the Nakdong bridge, the Waegwan bridge, Gangjung and Gaepori, the other one was the Kumho river around the Paldal bridge(see Fig.1). The microanalyses of lead and cadmium contents were undertaken by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer(Model IL-551) connected with CTF-IL 655, while that of zinc by the flame method with IL-551 only. The contents of lead and cadmium in water sampled from Gaepori distant from about 30km downward from the junction with the Kumho river were about 1.5 times higher than those from Gangjung distant about 0.5km upward from the junction, and the content of zinc from Gaepori was slightly higher than that from Gangjung. However, the contents of lead and cadmium in water sampled from Gaepori were three fifth of those from the vicinity of Paldal bridge far about 2km upperward from the junction. In the other words, the contents of lead and cadmium in the samples from the vicinity of the Paldal bridge were about 2.5 to 3 times higher than those from the Gangjung and 5 times higher than those from the Andong dam. The contents of the heavy metals in the tissues of Carassius carassius were relatively consistent to those of the aquatic environments were the fish were collected, with higher contents in the tissues of the crussian carp collected from the vicinity of Gaepori and the Paldal bridge which were so much polluted than in those from other loci in upper stream from the junction. And the contents of lead and cadmium in tissues were positively correlated with the age of the fish, however, that zinc was not. The contents of lead in bone of crussian carp from the vicinity of the Paldal bridge in the group of 0-1 year old fish were similar to those of 4-5 years old fish from Gaepori, and higher than those of 3-4 years old fish collected from the upper stream of the junction. It is likely that fishing from Gaepori and the paldal bridge is not recommended, and all the industrial producers have to pay intensive attention to the water pollution due to the sewage disposal.
Summary
Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Against the Environmental Factors.
Sang Chual Kim, Doohie Kim, Soon Woo Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):183-194.
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This study was carried out to investigate for resistance of V. parahaemolyticus that isolated from patients of food poisoning and fish and shellfish, captured in east coast of Kyungpook province of Korea from 1985 to 1986. VP ATCC 17802 and NAG V. ATCC 6538 were used as control. In fish, shellfish and seaweed, the more temperature increased, the shorter survival time was. In case of sea-water, the more temperature rose up, the longer survival time was, particularly in 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C, the strains had survived after 6 months. And in tapwater, it was sterilized in 150 mins. and survived for 11.5 days on maximum in ground water. In kimchi, at room temperature, germicidal time was shorter more than 6 times compared with that which had been kept in refrigerator. It survived for 57.1 days in milk, 49.2 mins. in yougurt. Strains had been surviving in frozen condition at -70 degrees C even after 6 months, present study time. In resistance test in water bath at several degrees of temperature, all the strains were sterilized in 20 mins. with 60 degrees C. In resistance test to driness, number of surviving strains dropped rapidly in 10-11% water contents. In UV 2538A, strains were sterilized in 20 mins. In resistance test to alcohol, strains had survived for 0.1-4 mins. in fermentative wine of below than 25% and distilled wine of over than 25% in alcohol concentration. The bactericidal concentration of disinfectant was 1% in phenol and 3% in cresol. In 0.1M acetic acid and 0.1M lactic acid, number of surviving colonies decreased rapidly but not in citric acid. The more NaCl concentration rose up, the lower decreasing rate of number of surviving colonies was. The strains had showed sensitive response to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and resisted to carbenicillin, ampicillin and kanamycin. When one day culture strain was cultured till 25th day, resistant strains to tetracycline and cephalothin were changed to sensitive.
Summary
The Association between Blood Selenium Level and the Gastric Diseases.
Jong Young Lee, Doohie Kim, Seoung Kook Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):172-182.
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To reveal the association between blood selenium level and the gastric diseases, 180 persons received the gastrofiberscopic examination at the outpatients department of the two university hospitals from July to September 1987, after the exclusion of the persons having the esophageal varix, were randomly selected. Their general characteristics such as age, sex and educational level and so on, were investigated. Five microliter venous blood was collected from each subjects and stored at 0 degrees C in heparinized vaccum tube. The blood selenium level was measured by the flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In the procedure of data analysis, five subjects having benign tumor and anomaly of the stomach, were also excluded. The mean blood selenium levels of the 155.5 microgram/l among gastritis cases, the 154.8 microgram/l gastric ulcer and the 133.0 microgram/l gastric malignancy were significantly lower(p<0.05) than that of the 173.3 microgram/l among normal controls. In men the mean blood selenium levels among gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric malignancy cases were significantly lower(p<0.05) than that among normal controls. In females, the mean blood selenium levels among gastritis and gastric maligancy cases were significantly lower(P<0.05) than that among normal controls(169.7 microgram/l), buy that among gastric ulcer cases(177.7 microgram/l) was not significantly higher. In the logistic analysis, coefficient of the blood selenium level was -0.0436(p<0.05 ; odds ratio 0.957) for gastritis, -0.0197(p=0.17 ; 0.981) for gastric ulcer, -0.4876(p<0.05 ; 0.614) for gastric malignancy and -0.0411(p<0.05 ; 0.960) for gastric diseases including the gastritis, the gastric ulcer and the gastric malignancy. These data support the hypothesis that the gastric diseases are to be associated with the low selenium level but, for the gastric ulcer, the further research is recommended.
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health