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Dai Ha Koh 11 Articles
Serum Gamma-glutamyltransferase Levels and the Risks of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Healthy Men: A 2-year Follow-up.
Joo Youn Shin, Jong Han Lim, Dai Ha Koh, Keun Sang Kwon, Yong Kyu Kim, Hwan Chul Kim, Yeui Cheol Lee, Ju Hyoung Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Sung Bin Hong, Shin Goo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(4):353-358.
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OBJECTIVES
An increase in the serum gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT) concentration has been regarded as a marker of alcohol drinking or liver disease. Some reports, however, have suggested that the serum GGT may be a sensitive and early biomarker for the development of prediabetes and diabetes. In this study we investigated whether serum GGT is a reliable predictor of the incident impaired fasting glucose (IFG), including diabetes. METHODS: We performed a prospective study for two years (2002-2004). We analyzed the periodic health examination data from a total of 4,711 men. The examinations were done in the years 2002 and 2004. The analyzed data included a self-questionnaire, a physical examination and the laboratory results. Both IFG and diabetes were defined as a serum fasting glucose concentration of more than 100 mg/dL and 126 mg/dL, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 738 cases (15.7%) of incident IFG and 13 cases (0.3%) of diabetes occurred. The mean serum GGT concentrations were quite different between the normal (38.0 IU) and incident IFG groups (50.3 IU), and the incident diabetes group (66.0 IU) (p <0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the relative risks for incident IFG or diabetes across the baseline GGT categories (<10th, 10th-20th, 30th-40th, 50th-60th, 70th-80th and >90th percentile) were 1.0, 1.172 (0.769-1.785), 1.107 (0.725- 1.689), 1.444 (0.934-2.232), 2.061 (1.401-3.031) and 2.545 (1.784-3.631) (p-value for trend: <0.001). The risks significantly increased with increasing levels of GGT for 2 years; when comparing the increased groups (<10%, 10- 20%, >20%) versus the decreased over 20% group of GGT, the risks for IFG or diabetes were 1.334 (1.002-1.776), 1.613 (1.183-2.199) and 1.399 (1.092-1.794). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that serum GGT concentrations within its normal range may be an early predictor of the development of IFG and diabetes. As serum GGT is a relatively inexpensive test and a reliable marker, it might have important implications in public health promotion.
Summary
Alibi Verification and the PCR Method to Estimate the Source of Epidemic for a Few Notified Cases of S. sonnei.
Sin Jae Lee, Dai ha Koh, Chai Hyun Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):420-424.
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OBJECTIVES
A few culture-confirmed cases of S. sonnei have been notified from Korean hospitals. The source of epidemic can't be firmly determined in such cases because of the rarity of this illness in the local communities and the timing of the outbreaks. The objective of this study is to estimate the source of epidemic by investigating the patients' lifestyles. METHODS: Alibi verification was used to access the presumed source of the epidemic. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) was used to rapidly detect the genes of Shigella in water specimens. RESULTS: The common lifestyle trait among the Shigellainfected patients was connected with Mt. Martyr in J city, Korea. The first patient's son had gone on a pilgrimage to Mt. Martyr with 41 friends and he had only eaten rice cakes on April 5th; the second patients had visited Mt. Martyr with their mother for a picnic on April 12th; the third patient had visited Mt. Martyr with 22 friends for a pilgrimage and the patient had only drunk holy water on April 13th. Therefore, the holy water of Mt. Martyr was reckoned to be the source of the epidemic. PCR detected the genes of Shigella two days before the S. sonnei was confirmed. CONCLUSION: The patients' lifestyles for 7 days before the onset of symptoms should be determined in terms of time, place and contacted people to find the source of infection when cases with food poisoning are seen in the hospital setting.
Summary
A Study on the Protective Effects of Glutathione on Cytotoxicity of Mercury and Cadmium.
Jae Ho Jeong, Jun Youn Kim, Dai Ha Koh
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(2):170-176.
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OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the protective effects of glutathione (GSH) on the cytotoxicity of mercurial compounds(CH3HgCl, HgCl2) or cadmium chloride(CdCl2) in EMT-6 cells. METHODS: The compounds investigated were CH3HgCl, HgCl2, CdCl2, GSH, buthionine sulfoximine(BSO), L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid(OTC). Cytotoxicity analysis consist of nitric oxide(NO) production, ATP production and cell viability. RESULTS: Mercurial compounds and cadmium chloride significantly decreased cell viability and the synthesis of NO and cellular ATP in EMT-6 cells. GSH was not toxic at concentrations of 0 - 1.6 mM. In the presence of GSH, mercurial compounds and cadmium did not decrease the production of ATP and nitrite in EMT-6 cells. The protective effects of GSH against the cytotoxicity of mercurial compounds and cadmium depended on the concentration of added GSH to the culture medium for EMT-6 cells. We evaluated the effects of intracellular GSH level on mercury- or cadmium-induced cytotoxicity by the pretreatment experiments. Pretreatment of GSH was not changed NO2- and ATP production, and pretreatment of BSO was decreased in dose- and time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of OTC was increased NO2- and ATP production in dose- and time-dependent manner. Because intracellular GSH level was increased by OTC pretreatment, the protective effect on mercury- and cadmium-induced cytotoxicity was increased. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that sulfhydryl compounds had the protective effects against mercury-induced cytotoxicity by the intracellular GSH levels.
Summary
Effects of Mercury Chloride on Nitric Oxide Syntheses in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophage and EMT-6 Cell.
Keun Sang Kwon, Dai Ha Koh, No Suk Ki, Jung Ho Youm
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(2):369-380.
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The effects of treatment with mercury chloride on the nitrite and nitrate syntheses were observed in peritoneal macrophages from Balb/c mice and EMT-6 cells in vitro. The cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium(DMEM) with cytokines. Amounts of nitrite and nitrate in the culture media after 24 and 36 hours of culture were about 2-fold, and 3-fold of those measured after 12 hours respectively. There were very close associations between the amounts of nitrite and nitrate measured in the culture media according to culture time. The survival rate of peritoneal macrophages was significantly decreased by mercury chloride added into the media in dose-dependent manner, however the survivals of EMT-6 cells were not influenced by mercury chloride concentration in media. Nitrite and nitrate syntheses were dose-dependently decreased by mercury chloride added in culture media. ATP synthesis also decreased in EMT-6 cells by mercury chloride. These results reported here suggest that the disorder of cell mediated immunity by mercurials could be related to the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis which seems to be caused by the inhibition of ATP synthesis.
Summary
NO2- and ATP synthesis in the EMT-6 cell stimulated by mercury chloride.
Gyung Jae Oh, Dai Ha Koh, Jung Ho Youm
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(3):495-506.
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Effect of Mercury chloride on the synthesis of NO2- and ATP were observed in EMT-6 cells which were culture with cytokines(IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma) and various concentrations of mercury chloride from 0.05 to 0.08 M. Viability of EMT-6 cells were observed above 90% in almost groups. There were not significant differences in the viability between mercury supplemented groups and control group. It suggests viability of EMT-6 cells were not influenced by these concentrations of mercury chloride. Results of the synthesis of nitrite showed significant time and group effect. There is a significant interaction effect between concentration of mercury chloride and culture time. The effect of various concentration of mercury chloride is not the same for all levels of culture time. There were significant differences in the synthesis of nitrite between mercury chloride supplemented groups and control group, and the synthesis of nitrite in EMT-6 cell by the supplement of mercury chloride was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Results of the synthesis of ATP showed a significant group effect, and the time main effect and the Group x Time interaction were also significant. There were significant differences in the synthesis of ATP between mercury chloride supplemented groups and control group, and the synthesis of ATP in EMT-6 cell by the supplement of mercury chloride was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the disorder of cell mediated immunity by mercury chloride could be related to the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis which will be caused by the decreased synthesis of ATP.
Summary
HgCl2 Dysregulates the Immune Response of Balb/c Mice.
No Suk Kim, Dai Ha Koh, Chong Suh Kim, Jung Sang Lee, Nam Song Kim, Hwang Ho Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(1):11-24.
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The studies reported here were undertaken to investigate the effects of mercury chloride on immune system of Balb/c mouse employing a flexible tier of in vitro and in vivo assays. Mercury chloride inhibited the proliferative responses of spleen cells to lipopolysaccharide, pokeweed mitogen, and phytohemagglutinin as a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was observed not only when HgCl2 was added 2nd or 3rd day of 3 days culture period but also when spleen cells was pretreated with HgC12 for 2 hours. Mercury chloride, however, potentiated the production of IgM and IgG from spleen cells. During the HgCl2 administration by drinking for 3 weeks, the weight gain of mice was significantly blunted than that of control group mice, while no overt signs related to mercury toxicity were noted in any mice of experimental group. There was no change in thymus and spleen weights, and in histological findings of kidney, bone marrow of femur, thymus, spleen, and politeful lymph node after 3 weeks of mercury exposure. However, HgC12 induced a significant increase of total serum IgM, IgG including IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b, and IgE in Balb/c mice. Treatment in vivo with anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody significantly abrogated the HgCl2-induced increase in total serum IgG1 and IgE. Whereas HgCl2 potentiated total serum IgM and IgG, there was, there was no difference in total serum hemagglutinin to SRBC(Sheep Red Blood cell) between experimental and control group mice when these mice were immunized with SRBC. All these findings observed in Balb/c mice suggest that mercury perturbates well-orchestrated regulation of immune responses before developing histopathological changes in lymphoid tissues.
Summary
Metallothionein induction and its protective effect in liver and kidney of rats exposed to cadmium chloride.
Nam Song Kim, Jae Hyung Lee, Dai Ha Koh, No Suk Ki, In Dam Hwang
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(3):287-304.
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Tolerance to several toxic effects of cadmium, including lethality has been shown following pretreatment with cadmium and zinc. This study was designed to determine if tolerance also develops to Cd-induced hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity. Three groups of rats (A, B, C), each consisting of 16 rats, were studied and each group was divided into four subgroups (1, 2, 3, 4), 4 rats for each subgroup. Rats were subcutaneously pretreated with saline (A), CdCl2(0.5 mg/kg, B), and ZnCl2 (13.0 mg/kg, C) during time periods of 1~6 weeks. At the end of the period, rats were challenged with CdCl2 (3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 mg/kg, ip). After giving the challenge dose, cadmium and metallothionein (MT) concentrations were determined and also observed the histologic change in liver and kidney. The concentration of cadmium in liver and also observed the increased dose-dependently to the challenge dosage. These data indicate the kidney is a major target organ of chronic cadmium poisoning, and suggest that cadmium induced hepatic injury, via release of Cd-MT, may play and important role in the nephrotoxicity observed in response to long-term exposure to cadmium. In addition, histologic examination of group A2, A3 and A4 revealed moderate to severe cadmium toxicity, evidenced by infiltration of inflammatory cells, cell swelling, pyknosis, enlarged sinusoids and necrosis in liver, and tubule cell necrosis and degeneration in kidney. However, MT concentrations in liver and kidney were increased by the pretreatment of CdCl2 and ZnCl2 and their morphological findings were not significantly changed, comparing with control group. Higher MT concentration in liver and kidney observed in the pretreated groups constitutes a plausible explanation of the protective effects of pretreatment against the cadmium toxicity after challenge dosing.
Summary
Selenium Effect on the Frequency of SCEs Induced by Heavy Metals in Human Lymphocytes.
Dai Ha Koh, No Suk Ki
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):1-10.
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The protective effect of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) against the cytogenetic toxicity of heavy metals was investigated on human whole-blood cultures in relation to induction of sister chromatid exchange(SCE) in secondary metaphase chromosome. Methlmercury chloride (CH3HgCl), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), and sodium selenite caused to the typically dose-dependent increase in sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by the concentrations ranging from 0.3 micro M to 10 micro M. However, the inductions of sister chromatid exchanges by methymercury chloride or cadmium chloride were inhibited by the simultaneous addition of sodium selenite 1.2 micro M. The frequencies of SCE were decreased to the level of control in the molar ratios as 2 : 1, 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 1 : 4 of selenium selenite vs. methylmercury chloride, and as 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 of selenium selenite vs. cadmium chloride, while the frequencies of SCE induced by potassium dichromate were not changed by the addition of sodium selenite in culture condition. Mitotic indices were decreased in the higher concentrations of chemicals and not significantly changed by the simultaneous addition of sodium selenite to the culture condition containing each chemicals.
Summary
Effect of Several Heavy Metals on the Frequencies of Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes.
Chae Deuk Jung, Jeong Sang Lee, Dai Ha Koh, No Suk Ki, In Dam Hwang
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(1):116-124.
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To assay the cytogenetic toxicity of NiCl, K2Cr2O7CdC12, and HgC12, the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges(SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations were observed in the metaphase chromosomes of the human lymphocytes which were cultured with above materials. The frequencies of SCEs are dose-dependently increased by all materials in this experiment. Chromosomal aberrations, especially gap and break, are increased by the nickel and chromic compounds, while not significantly increased by the cadmium and mercurial compounds. This results indicate the dose dependent relationship between the frequencies of SCEs and the concentrations of the heavy metals, but the increasing rates of the SCEs induced by the heavy metals are less sensitive than other mutagens or carcinogens which were confirmed.
Summary
Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Lymphocytes on Normal Human Blood culture with Mercury chloride or Methylmercury Chloride.
Dai Ha Koh
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):245-250.
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Reciprocal exchanges of DNA in sister chromatids (SCEs) are induced by various carcinogens and mutagens, although the quantitative relationship between the number of mutations and SCEs induced varies among chemicals. Nevertheless, the analysis of SCEs production by various agents often proposed as a sensitive and quantitative assay for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. Mercury, even if which has no evidences for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, is reported to exert women cytotoxic effects, such as chromosomal aberrations or bad influences to ovulation and reproduction in experimental animals, etc. In this study, tests for sister chromatid exchanges have been carried out on normal human lymphocytes in whole blood culture to add mercury chloride (HgCl2) or methylmercury chloride(CH3 HgCl) for 72 hr. The results indicate the dose-dependent relationship between the frequencies of SCEs and the concentrations of HgCl2, CH3HgCl and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Lymphocyte proliferation has depressed in the higher concentration of mercury.
Summary
Socio-medical Study on Gonorrhoea with Special References of Prevalence, PPNG and Antibiotic Resistance.
Seong Ho Lee, In Dam Hwang, Young Soo Park, Dai Ha Koh
Korean J Prev Med. 1983;16(1):41-50.
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The incidence of sexually transmitted disease, especially gonorrhoea has risen despite the progress in its diagnosis and treatment. For the effective control programs of sexually transmitted disease, it should be required socio-medical approaches. A study on gonorrhoea and penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoea (PPNG) was conducted in Jeonju and Kunsan area from March, 1982 through August, 1982. The 221 entertrainers were studied in order to determine the prevalences of gonorrhoea and PPNG. Socio-demographic informations of the entertainers were obtained by interviewing them. Gonococci were cultured on Thayer-Martin enrichment media for isolation, and PPNG was confirmed using beta-lactamase reagent(PADAC(tm) Beta-Lactamase Test Strips, Galbiochem-Behring). The results of the study are summarized as follows; 1. The average age of the entertainers studied was 26.1+/-4.7 years. 2. The average years of working in entertaining business was 2.4+/-1.4 years, and the average income per month was 239,592+/-90,480 won. On the education level, 70.6% of the entertainers were middle or high school graduates. 3. 47.5% of the entertainers were using contraceptives. 90.5% have experienced artificial abortion. 4. 37(16.7%) out of 221 entertainers were revealed to gonorrhoea, and 13(35.1%) of gonorrhoea patients were by PPNG. 5. The prevalence rates of gonorrhoea and the proportion of PPNG by age were not significant statistically. Meanwhile, the colelations between the rates of gonorrhoea and education, frequency of love-making with customers and type of sexual partner were highly significant statistically. 6. 37 strains of gonococci isolated were almost resistant to several antimicrobial agents, especially amikacin, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. Furthermore PPNG strains were completely resistant to not only above drugs but also penicillin.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health