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Chi Nyon Kim 3 Articles
Distribution of Airborne Fungi, Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide in Seoul Metropolitan Subway Stations.
Ki Youn Ki, Jae Beom Park, Chi Nyon Kim, Kyung Jong Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(4):325-330.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aims of this study were to examine the level of airborne fungi and environmental factors in Seoul metropolitan subway stations and to provide fundamental data to protect the health of subway workers and passengers. METHODS: The field survey was performed from November in 2004 to February in 2005. A total 22 subway stations located at Seoul subway lines 1-4 were randomly selected. The measurement points were subway workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and the passengers' activity areas (station precincts, inside train and platform). Air sampling for collecting airborne fungi was carried out using a one-stage cascade impactor. The PM and CO2 were measured using an electronic direct recorder and detecting tube, respectively. RESULTS: In the activity areas of the subway workers and passengers, the mean concentrations of airborne fungi were relatively higher in the workers' bedroom and station precinct whereas the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 and PM2.5, were relatively higher in the platform, inside the train and driver's seat than in the other activity areas. There was no significant difference in the concentration of airborne fungi between the underground and ground activity areas of the subway. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in the platform located at underground was significantly higher than that of the ground (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The levels of airborne fungi in the Seoul subway line 1-4 were not serious enough to cause respiratory disease in subway workers and passengers. This indicates that there is little correlation between airborne fungi and particulate matter.
Summary
Field Study of Concentrations and Emissions of Particulate Contaminants by Types of Swine Houses in Korea.
Ki Yeon Kim, Kyung Jong Lee, Jae Beom Park, Chi Nyon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(2):141-146.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Particulate contaminants, such as total and respirable dusts, can harm the health of farm workers via several routes. The principal aims of this field study were to determine the concentrations and emissions of particulate contaminants: total and respirable dusts, in the different types of swine houses used in Korea, and allow objective comparison between Korea and the other countries in terms of swine housing types. METHODS: The swine houses investigated in this research were selected with respect to three criteria: the manure removal system, ventilation mode and growth stage of pigs. Measurements of total and respirable dust concentrations and emissions in the swine houses were carried out on 5 housing types at 15 different farm sites per housing type. The swine houses investigated were randomly selected from farms situated within the central districts in Korea: province of Kyung-gi, Chung-buk and Chung-nam. RESULTS: The total and respirable dust concentrations in the swine houses averaged 1.88 and 0.64 mg/m3, ranging from 0.53 to 4.37 mg/m3 and from 0.18 to 1.68 mg/m3, respectively. The highest concentrations of total and respirable dusts were found in the swine houses with deep-litter bed systems: 2.94 mg/m3 and 1.14 mg/m3, while the lowest concentrations were found in the naturally ventilated buildings with slats: 0.83 mg/m3 and 0.24 mg/m3, respectively (p< 0.05). All the swine houses investigated did not exceed the threshold limit values (TLVs) for total (10 mg/m3) and respirable (2.5 mg/m3) dusts. The mean emissions of total and respirable dusts, per pig (75 kg in terms of live weight) and area (m2), from the swine houses were 97.33 and 9.55 mg/h/pig and 37.14 and 12.83 mg/h/m2, respectively. The swine houses with deep-litter bed systems showed the highest emissions of total and respirable dusts (p< 0.05). However, the emissions of total and respirable dusts from the other swine houses were not significantly different (p> 0.05). CONCLUSION: The concentrations and emissions of total and respirable dusts were relatively higher in the swine houses managed with deep-litter bed systems and ventilated naturally of the different swine housing types tested. In further research, more farms than the number used in this research should be investigated, which will present objective and accurate data on the concentrations and emissions of total and respirable dusts in Korean swine houses. In addition, personal sampling should be performed to objectively assess the exposure level of farm workers to particulate contaminants.
Summary
Effects of Ethanol and Phenobarbital on Hemoglobin Adducts Formation in Rats Exposed to Direct Black 38.
Chi Nyon Kim, Se Hoon Lee, Jaehoon Roh
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(3):229-235.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the effects on the formation of benzidine-hemoglobin, and benzidine metabolite-hemoglobin adducts, caused by pretreatment with the known xenobiotic metabolism effectors, ethanol and phenobarbital, in rats administered Direct Black 38 dye. METHODS: The experimental rats were divided into three groups: a control group, an ethanol group and a phenobarbital group. Rats were pretreated with ethanol (1g/kg) or phenobarbital (80mg/kg) 24 hours prior to the oral administration of Direct Black 38 (0.5mmol/kg), with the control group being administered the same amount of distilled water. Blood samples were obtained from the vena cava of 5 rats from each group prior to, and at 30 min, 3 h, 6 h, 9 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 144 h following the oral administration of Direct Black 38. Directly after sampling the blood was separated into hemoglobin and plasma, with the adducts being converted into aromatic amines by basic hydrolysis. Hydrolyzed benzidiene, monoacetylbenzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl were analyzed by reverse-phase liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector. The quantitative amount of the metabolites was expressed by the hemoglobin binding index (HBI). RESULTS: In the ethanol group, benzidine-, monoacetylben-zidine-, and 4-aminobiphenyl-HBI were increased to a greater extent than those in the control group. These results were attributed to the ethanol inducing N-hydroxylation, which is related to the formation of the hemoglobin adduct. In the phenobarbital group, all the HBIs, with the exception of the benzidine-HBI, were increased to a greater extent than those of the control group. These results were attributed to the phenobarbital inducing N-hydroxylation related to the formation of the hemoglobin adduct. The N-acetylation ratio was only increased with the phenobarbital pretreatment due to the lower benzidine-HBI of the phenobarbital group compared to those of the control and ethanol groups. The N-acetylation ratios for all groups were higher than 1 for the duration of the experimental period. Although the azo reduction was unaffected by the ethanol, it was inhibited by the phenobarbital. The ratio of the benzidine-HBI in the phenobarbital group was lower than those of the ethanol the control groups for the entire experiment. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that both ethanol and phenobarbital increase the formation of adducts by the induction of N-hydroxylation, but also induced N-acetylation. Phenobarbital decreased the formation of benzidine-HBI due to the decrease of the azo reduction. These results suggest that the effects of ethanol and phenobarbital need to be considered in the biochemical monitoring of Direct Black 38.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health