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Chang Yup Kim 33 Articles
Participation Determinants in the DRG Payment System of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in South Korea.
Jung Kook Song, Chang yup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):117-124.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.117
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  • 63 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) payment system, which has been implemented in Korea since 1997, is based on voluntary participation. Hence, the positive impact of this system depends on the participation of physicians. This study examined the factors determining participation of Korean obstetrics & gynecology (OBGYN) clinics in the DRG-based payment system. METHODS: The demographic information, practice-related variables of OBGYN clinics and participation information in the DRG-based payment system were acquired from the nationwide data from 2002 to 2007 produced by the National Health Insurance Corporation and the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service. The subjects were 336 OBGYN clinics consisting of 43 DRG clinics that had maintained their participation in 2003-2007 and 293 no-DRG (fee-for-service) clinics that had never been a DRG clinic during the same period. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors associated with the participation of OBGYN clinics in the DRG-based payment system. RESULTS: The factors affecting participation of OBGYN clinics in the DRG-based payment system were as follows (p<0.05): (1) a larger number of caesarian section (c/sec) claims, (2) higher cost of a c/sec, (3) less variation in the price of a c/sec, (4) fewer days of admission for a c/sec, and (5) younger pregnant women undergoing a c/sec. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that OBGYN clinics with an economic practice pattern under a fee-for-service system are more likely to participate in the DRG-based payment system. Therefore, to ensure adequate participation of physicians, a payment system with a stronger financial incentive might be more suitable in Korea.
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  • Polypharmacy, hospitalization, and mortality risk: a nationwide cohort study
    Tae Ik Chang, Haeyong Park, Dong Wook Kim, Eun Kyung Jeon, Connie M. Rhee, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Ea Wha Kang, Shin-Wook Kang, Seung Hyeok Han
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of payment system change from per-case to per-diem on high severity patient's length of stay
    Sung-In Jang, Chung Mo Nam, Sang Gyu Lee, Tae Hyun Kim, Sohee Park, Eun-Cheol Park
    Medicine.2016; 95(37): e4839.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Mandatory Diagnosis-Related Groups Payment System
    Jae-Woo Choi, Sung-In Jang, Suk-Yong Jang, Seung-Ju Kim, Hye-Ki Park, Tae Hyun Kim, Eun-Cheol Park
    Health Policy and Management.2016; 26(2): 135.     CrossRef
  • Nurses' Cognition of Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) in Long-term Care Hospitals and Changes in Nursing Care after Application of DRG
    Eun Ha, Kyeha Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration.2012; 18(2): 176.     CrossRef
High Risk Groups in Health Behavior Defined by Clustering of Smoking, Alcohol, and Exercise Habits: National Heath and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Kiwon Kang, Joohon Sung, Chang yup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(1):73-83.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.1.73
  • 7,136 View
  • 296 Download
  • 63 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We investigated the clustering of selected lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise) and identified the population characteristics associated with increasing lifestyle risks. METHODS: Data on lifestyle risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and history of chronic diseases were obtained from 7,694 individuals > or =20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Clustering of lifestyle risks involved the observed prevalence of multiple risks and those expected from marginal exposure prevalence of the three selected risk factors. Prevalence odds ratio was adopted as a measurement of clustering. Multiple correspondence analysis, Kendall tau correlation, Man-Whitney analysis, and ordinal logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify variables increasing lifestyle risks. RESULTS: In both men and women, increased lifestyle risks were associated with clustering of: (1) cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and (2) smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise. Patterns of clustering for physical exercise were different from those for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The increased unhealthy clustering was found among men 20-64 years of age with mild or moderate stress, and among women 35-49 years of age who were never-married, with mild stress, and increased body mass index (>30 kg/m2). CONCLUSIONS: Addressing a lack of physical exercise considering individual characteristics including gender, age, employment activity, and stress levels should be a focus of health promotion efforts.
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  • Relationship between Handgrip Strength and Incident Diabetes in Korean Adults According to Gender: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study
    Sung-Bum Lee, Min-Kyeung Jo, Ji-Eun Moon, Hui-Jeong Lee, Jong-Koo Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(2): 627.     CrossRef
  • Combination of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, screen-based sedentary time, and sleep duration and their association with South Korean adolescents' mental health
    Jin Suk Ra
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A study on Bayesian beta regressions for modelling rates and proportions
    Jeongin Lee, Jaeoh Kim, Seongil Jo
    Korean Journal of Applied Statistics.2024; 37(3): 339.     CrossRef
  • Health Behaviors of Cancer Survivors According to the Employment Status and Occupation: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Ka Ryeong Bae, Wi-Young So, Su Jung Lee
    Healthcare.2023; 11(22): 2974.     CrossRef
  • Association of handgrip strength with new-onset CKD in Korean adults according to gender
    Sung-Bum Lee, Miryung Kim, Hui-Jeong Lee, Jong-Koo Kim
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk for Esophageal Cancer Based on Lifestyle Factors–Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Body Mass Index: Insight from a South Korean Population Study in a Low-Incidence Area
    Mi Jung Kwon, Ho Suk Kang, Hyo Geun Choi, Joo-Hee Kim, Ji Hee Kim, Woo Jin Bang, Sung Kwang Hong, Nan Young Kim, Sangkyoon Hong, Hong Kyu Lee
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(22): 7086.     CrossRef
  • Identifying Clusters of Health Behaviors in a Japanese Working Population at Risk for Non-Communicable Diseases: A Latent Class Analysis of 12,168 Individuals
    Takahiro Miki, Kojiro Yamamoto, Masashi Kanai, Kento Takeyama, Maki Iwatake, Yuta Hagiwara
    SSM - Population Health.2023; 24: 101539.     CrossRef
  • Association of Muscle Strength with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults
    Sung-Bum Lee, Yu-Jin Kwon, Dong-Hyuk Jung, Jong-Koo Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(3): 1675.     CrossRef
  • Burden of Cancer Due to Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption in Korea
    Yoon-Sun Jung, Seok-Jun Yoon
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(6): 3493.     CrossRef
  • Is the Prevalence of Low Physical Activity among Teachers Associated with Depression, Anxiety, and Stress?
    Elżbieta Biernat, Monika Piątkowska, Michał Rozpara
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(14): 8868.     CrossRef
  • Association of Handgrip Strength with Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults According to Sex
    Sung-Bum Lee, Ji-Eun Moon, Jong-Koo Kim
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(8): 1874.     CrossRef
  • Relationship Between Handgrip Strength and Metabolic Syndrome Among Middle-Aged and Elderly Cancer Survivors
    Ji-Su Kim, Yeji Seo
    Cancer Nursing.2022; 45(6): 457.     CrossRef
  • Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast foods deteriorates adolescents' mental health
    Jin Suk Ra
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cross-Sectional Association between Hypercholesterolemia and Knee Pain in the Elderly with Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey
    Byung Woo Cho, Du Seong Kim, Hyuck Min Kwon, Ick Hwan Yang, Woo-Suk Lee, Kwan Kyu Park
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(5): 933.     CrossRef
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    Su Jung Lee, Kathleen B. Cartmell
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2021; 11(5): 366.     CrossRef
  • Combined Effects of Unhealthy Lifestyle Behaviors on Metabolic Syndrome among Postmenopausal Women
    Jin-Suk Ra, Hyesun Kim
    Healthcare.2021; 9(7): 848.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Nomogram for Predicting Depression in the Elderly Using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 among a Nationwide Sample of Korean Elderly
    Haewon Byeon
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2021; 11(7): 645.     CrossRef
  • Clustering of Healthy Behaviors and Related Factors among 19-64 Aged Korean Adults
    Hyae Min Gu, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Seong-Woo Choi, Mi Ah Han, Jun Ho Shin
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2021; 46(3): 267.     CrossRef
  • Association of Soybean Food Intake and Cardiometabolic Syndrome in Korean Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007 to 2011)
    Sook-Hyun Jun, Woo-Kyoung Shin, Yookyung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(1): 143.     CrossRef
  • Intergenerational Coresidential Patterns by Young Adult’s and Their Mother’s Mental Health and Substance Use
    Mieke Beth Thomeer, Corinne Reczek
    Journal of Family Issues.2020; 41(9): 1498.     CrossRef
  • Trends in Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rates among Korean Cancer Survivors: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III–VI
    Ye-Seul Kim, Jae-woo Lee, Hee-Taik Kang, Yonghwan Kim, Hyo-Sun You
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2020; 41(1): 45.     CrossRef
  • Association between Clustering of Lifestyle and Chronic Disease Using Healthcare Big Data
    Eul Hee Roh, Sang Chan Park
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2020; 45(2): 113.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with different numbers of health behaviors by living arrangements
    Namhee Kim, Heejung Kim, Sooyoung Kwon
    BMC Public Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Health-Habits with the S.M.A.R.T. Questionnaire: An Observational Study
    Francesco Vincenzo Ferraro, Ferdinando Ivano Ambra, Maria Luisa Iavarone
    Education Sciences.2020; 10(10): 285.     CrossRef
  • A study on the health effects of residents in Namhae and Hadong - Centered on health insurance data
    YoonDeok Han, Sunghyeon Jung, Kwang-tae Ha, Seung-Mi Kwon, Seog-Ju Cho, Jin-Ho Sin, Yong-Seung Shin, Bu-Soon Son
    Journal of Odor and Indoor Environment.2020; 19(3): 268.     CrossRef
  • Factors related to the regular exercise participation of middle-aged and older people
    Yongha Seo, Seungjae Hyun, Sangshin Park
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2020; 37(5): 23.     CrossRef
  • Adult Cancer Survivors’ Patterns of Smoking and Current Smoking-related Factors: Analysis on 2007-2011 Korea Medical Institute (KMI) Data
    Jung Ae Byun, Yeunsoo Yang, Heejin Kimm, Ji Eun Yun, Sun Ha Jee
    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2019; 10(1): 23.     CrossRef
  • Awareness and Utilization of Mobile Health and Preventive Health Behavior according to Cardiovascular Risk Factor Cluster Type in Early Middle-aged Male Workers
    Eun Jin Kim, Seon Young Hwang
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2019; 31(5): 562.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Stress on Subway Station Workers’ Health Concern and Dietary Behavior in the Seoul Metro
    Jiyoung Yoon, Mieun Hyeon, Nami Joo
    Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life.2019; 29(6): 482.     CrossRef
  • Physical activity status by pain severity in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a nationwide study in Korea
    Hye-Young Shim, Mira Park, Hee-June Kim, Hee-Soo Kyung, Ji-Yeon Shin
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gender Comparison Factors Influencing Regular Exercise Adherence in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Data from the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013~2015)
    Hyekyung Jin, Minju Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2018; 25(2): 134.     CrossRef
  • Clustering of four major lifestyle risk factors among Korean adults with metabolic syndrome
    Shin Ha, Hui Ran Choi, Yo Han Lee, Tatsuo Shimosawa
    PLOS ONE.2017; 12(3): e0174567.     CrossRef
  • Obesity Markers as Predictors for Colorectal Neoplasia
    Jin-Hyun Kwon, Hae-Jin Ko, Chang-Ho Youn, Hye-In Choi
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2017; 26(1): 28.     CrossRef
  • Antidiabetic Effects of Gastric Banding Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Yu-Jeng Kim, Ha-Neul Choi, Hong-Chan Lee, Jung-Eun Yim
    Clinical Nutrition Research.2017; 6(3): 206.     CrossRef
  • The associations between apolipoprotein B, A1, and the B/A1 ratio and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in both normal-weight and overweight Korean population
    Moon Hee Yang, Jidong Sung, Geum-Youn Gwak
    Journal of Clinical Lipidology.2016; 10(2): 289.     CrossRef
  • Investigation of Healthy Life Practices among Korean Males and Females in relation to Dyslipidemia Using data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Sun-Hee Lee, GyeongAe Seomun
    Journal of Digital Convergence.2016; 14(1): 327.     CrossRef
  • Gender differences in healthy lifestyle clusters and their relationship with depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older adults in Korea
    Young Shin Park, Hongsoo Kim
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2016; 33(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Depression Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 in Long-Term Cancer Survivors
    Ae-Jin Goo, Yun-Mi Song, Jinyoung Shin, Hyeonyoung Ko
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2016; 37(4): 228.     CrossRef
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    Jae Jung Cheon, Jun Young Uhm, Gu Hyeok Kang, Eun Gye Kang, Soo Young Kim, Seong Sil Chang
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Non-regular Employment on the Health Behaviors, Mental Health and Quality of Life: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013
    Seong Eun Kim, Yeong Sook Yoon, Yun Jun Yang, Eon Sook Lee, Jun Hyung Lee, Dong Jun Kim, Jung Il Kim, Dai Jung Yeo, Ji Yeon Lee, Eun Gyoung Song
    Korean Journal of Stress Research.2016; 24(3): 127.     CrossRef
  • Effect of working patterns on eating habits in manufacturing workers of Gwangju area
    Ji-Suk Yim, Young-Ran Heo, Eun Jeong, Jae-Joon Lee
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2016; 49(6): 495.     CrossRef
  • Combined Influence of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Korean Adults: Using Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008~2011
    Hyun Sook Kim, Yunmi Kim, Yoon Hee Cho
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2016; 28(6): 609.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and behavioural risk factors of light or moderate and heavy cigarette smoking in 32 countries
    Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer
    Journal of Psychology in Africa.2016; 26(6): 535.     CrossRef
  • Clustering of lifestyle characteristics and their association with cardio-metabolic health: the Lifestyles and Endothelial Dysfunction (EVIDENT) study
    Maria C. Patino-Alonso, José I. Recio-Rodríguez, José Felix Magdalena-Belio, María Giné-Garriga, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaino, Carmen Fernández-Alonso, María Soledad Arietaleanizbeaskoa, María Purificación Galindo-Villardon, Manuel A. Gómez-Marcos, Luis Garc
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    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2015; 32(5): 17.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2014; 47(2): 113.     CrossRef
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    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2014; 15(10): 6223.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2013; 28(6): 869.     CrossRef
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    Geriatrics & Gerontology International.2012; 12(3): 515.     CrossRef
  • Habitual physical exercise has beneficial effects on telomere length in postmenopausal women
    Jung-Ha Kim, Jae-Hong Ko, Duk-chul Lee, Inja Lim, Hyoweon Bang
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  • Smoking Prevalence and the Association between Smoking and Sociodemographic Factors Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data, 2008 to 2010
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    Sung-Hong Kang, Soon-Ho Choi
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Subjective Satisfaction with Medical Care among Older People: Comprehensiveness, General Satisfaction and Accessibility.
Hwa Joon Kim, Young Koh, Eun Jeong Chun, Soong Nang Jang, Chang Yup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(1):35-41.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.1.35
  • 4,697 View
  • 48 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The changing population age structure and rapidly increasing medical costs make providing high-quality, effective medical care for the elderly a challenge. This study assessed the satisfaction with medical care in terms of comprehensiveness, general satisfaction, and accessibility among community-dwelling Korean elders. METHODS: Data were obtained from a nationwide representative sample of the older adults(aged 65 years old or older) living in the community, who participated in a 2006 telephone survey conducted using random digit dialing (n=881). General satisfaction, comprehensiveness and accessibility were measured using a 10-item satisfaction survey questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was used to assess the distribution of each of three components of subjective satisfaction. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the association of each of the three components with socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: Comprehensiveness and general satisfaction were low among older people with a high socioeconomic status. Accessibility was evaluated as low among older people of low socioeconomic status, those living in rural areas and those who were medical aid beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: Urgent interventions should be considered in order to improve accessibility to medical care for elders of low socioeconomic status and those living in rural communities. Given the rapid aging of the population, we need to develop a monitoring system to improve the quality of geriatric care.
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  • Optimization and Adjustment of Multilevel Medical Facilities for the Elderly from the Perspective of Accessibility
    Yanyan Gao, Zao Li
    Journal of Urban Planning and Development.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Gap Between Physicians and the Public in Satisfaction with the National Health Insurance System in Korea
    Kye-Hyun Kim, Eun-Cheol Park, Myung-Il Hahm
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2012; 27(6): 579.     CrossRef
  • The Rehabilitation Services Utilization of People with Disabilities in a Rural Area
    Gyeong-Jin Choi, Keon-Yeop Kim, Duck-Hee Lee, Chang-Hyun Han, Se-Mook Choi
    Journal of agricultural medicine and community health.2011; 36(4): 227.     CrossRef
  • Patient care encounters with the MCHL: a questionnaire study
    Mayvor Ström, Amir Baigi, Cathrine Hildingh, Bengt Mattsson, Bertil Marklund
    Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences.2011; 25(3): 517.     CrossRef
Certificate Education for Geriatric Physician: Satisfaction and Feasibility.
Sung Chun Lee, Hwa Joon Kim, Hyung Joon Park, Jong Lull Yun, Chang Yup Kim, Ok Ryun Moon, Soong Nang Jang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(1):10-16.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.1.10
  • 4,219 View
  • 30 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Korea faces a number of challenges to meet demands in the area of geriatric professional medicine in a country with a rapidly ageing population. We evaluated the satisfaction and feasibility of the current education certification for geriatric physicians. METHODS: Geriatric physicians who were deemed qualified by the Korean Geriatrics Society during the period of 2001 to 2005 (n=2,200) were asked to complete structured questionnaires sent to them by mail about their satisfaction of and need for certificates of education, as well as their opinions on their geriatric specialty training. A total of 419 physicians responded. Descriptive analysis and hierarchical regression were performed to rate the respondents.satisfaction, the characteristics of the need for clarity and utility in education certification, and the characteristics of their patients. RESULTS: Although most respondents were satisfied with their education certification, those who had more elderly patients, aged 65 or older, and those who had more cognitively impaired patients, rated their education as significantly lower than did other physicians. Both groups expressed the need for more the comprehensive care and assessment concerning of their education. Multiple regression analysis indicated that satisfaction with geriatric physician qualification was associated with a physician's age, specialty, and percentage of elderly patients. CONCLSIONS: This study suggests that the current system of education certification is limited in terms of feasibility and physician satisfaction.
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  • Is socioeconomic disparity in disability improving among Korean elders?
    Soong-Nang Jang, Sung-il Cho, Ichiro Kawachi
    Social Science & Medicine.2010; 71(2): 282.     CrossRef
A Study on Characteristics of Core Projects Described in 3rd Community Health Plans.
Dong Moon Kim, Weon Young Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Ok Ryun Moon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):88-98.
  • 65,535 View
  • 74 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
The 3rd community health plan let health centers select and promote core projects considering budget and manpower. This study analyzed the content and selection processes of core projects, using the nationwide 3rd community health plans, to give relevant information on health center policies. METHODS: Classification criteria for content analysis of core projects were established and verified through a literature review and by specialist discussions. Fifty plans were selected by stratified proportional random sampling for regional characteristics. And coding criteria standardized through coding repetition and discussion, by 2 persons (k> 0.7). Using stratified proportional random sampling for 16 cities and provinces, regional characteristics, 117 plans were selected, and the contents of the core project selection processes and program contents analyzed. RESULTS: The survey was used by 59.8 % of samples as a core project decision-making method. The participants included 98.6, 81.4, 40 and 38.6% of the health staffs, residents, medical institutions, and administrators, respectively. Discussion was used by 15.4% of samples. The participants were health staffs by 100% as a great. The ranking of the frequencies of the selected core projects were, in order; chronic disease control, health promotion, elderly health, maternal-child health, and oral health at 16.4, 14.8, 14.3, 12.7 and 11.9%, respectively. Analyses on the chronic disease control and elderly health contents showed the diversity of object disease, high rates of visitors on patient detection programs, high rates of unclear target populations, and the provision of medical exams and treatments as the main services, with high variations in business per-formance. The national health budgets for health centers in 2003 were about 910 and 240 million won for chronic disease control and elderly health, respectively, which were less than for the other five priority core projects. CONCLUSION: The chronic disease control and elderly health at the health centers were not standardized for object disease, patient detection program, target population, service provision, and national support budget was insufficient. Thus it is necessary to develop standard guidelines, and increase financial support, for chronic disease control and elderly health.
Summary
Factors Affecting the Diffusion of Health Center Information System.
Jin Yong Lee, Young Gyoung Do, Jung Gyu Lee, Gi Dong Park, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):359-366.
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  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to review the diffusion process and factors affecting the adoption of the Health Center Information System (HIS). METHODS: Data were collected from POSDATA (private company), MOHW, other Ministries and local governments. To specify the date of adoption, supplementary information was collected from 40 health centers. The following three kinds of factors were analyzed. Internal factors included type, size, and innovativeness of health centers. Community factors were composed of population size, economic status, and level of education. Organizational environmental factors consisted of information score of the municipalities, financial support of the from central government, and the neighborhoodness of innovator health centers. RESULTS: All health centers in the metropolitan cities of Seoul, Gwangju and Jeju adopted the HIS. The laggards were those in the metropolitan cities of Busan (18.8%), Incheon (20.0%) and Daejun (20.0%), and cities with population more than 300, 000 (54.8%) and counties with health center hospitals (47.1%). Financially supported rural health centers adopted the HIS more rapidly than those not supported. The factors identified as being statistically significant (p< 0.05), from a univariate analysis by Kaplan-Meier method, were: (1) internal factors of the type, size and innovativeness of health centers; (2) community factors of population size and economic status; (3) organizational environmental factors of the central government financial support and the neighborhoodness of innovator health centers. A multivariate analysis, using a Cox proportional hazard method, proved the innovativeness of health centers, central government financial support and the neighborhoodness of innovator health centers, were statistically significant (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The innovativeness of health centers, financial support from central government and the neighborhoodness of innovator health centers, rather than community factors related to regional socioeconomic status, affected the adoption of the HIS in health centers. Further in-depth studies, modifying the MOHW's strategy to propagate the HIS to the laggard health centers, are recommended.
Summary
Disability Weights for Diseases in Korea.
Jung Kyu Lee, Seok Jun Yoon, Young Kyung Do, Young Hoon Kwon, Chang Yup Kim, Kidong Park, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):163-170.
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OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to develop an evaluation protocol of disability weights using person trade-off, and to test the reliability of the developed protocol in a Korean context. METHODS: To develop the valuation protocol, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and the Dutch studies were replicated and modified. Sixteen indicator conditions were selected from the Korean version of disease classification, which was based on that of the GBD Study, and the person trade-off method referred to the Dutch method. RESULTS: The disability weights were valued in a two step panel study. The first step was a carefully designed group process by three panels, using person trade-off to establish the disability weights for sixteen selected indicator conditions. The second step consisted of interpolation of the remaining diseases, on a disability scale, by the individual members of three panels. The members of three panels were all medical doctors, with sufficient knowledge of the consequences of a broad variety of diseases. The internal consistency of the Korean disability weights was satisfactory. Considerable agreement existed within each panel and among the panels. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to use a modified evaluation protocol from those used in GBD and Dutch studies. This would provide a rational basis for an international comparative study of disability weights.
Summary
Efficient DRG Fraud Candidate Detection Method Using Data Mining Techniques.
Duho Hong, Jung Kyu Lee, Min Woo Jo, Kidong Park, Sang Il Lee, Moo Song Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):147-152.
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OBJECTIVES
To develop a Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) fraud candidate detection method, using data mining techniques, and to examine the efficiency of the developed method. METHODS: The study included 79, 790 DRGs and their related claims of 8 disease groups (Lens procedures, with or without, vitrectomy, tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy only, appendectomy, Cesarean section, vaginal delivery, anal and/or perianal procedures, inguinal and/or femoral hernia procedures, uterine and/or adnexa procedures for nonmalignancy), which were examined manually during a 32 months period. To construct an optimal prediction model, 38 variables were applied, and the correction rate and lift value of 3 models (decision tree, logistic regression, neural network) compared. The analyses were performed separately by disease group. RESULTS: The correction rates of the developed method, using data mining techniques, were 15.4 to 81.9%, according to disease groups, with an overall correction rate of 60.7%. The lift values were 1.9 to 7.3 according to disease groups, with an overall lift value of 4.1. CONCLUSIONS: The above findings suggested that the applying of data mining techniques is necessary to improve the efficiency of DRG fraud candidate detection.
Summary
Study of Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy(DALE) Using National Health Interview Survey in Korea.
Young Hoon Kwon, Jung Kyu Lee, Young Kyung Do, Seok Jun Yoon, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):331-339.
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OBJECTIVES
To measure DALE (Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy) in Korea to find out how long Koreans live in a state of full heath. METHODS: DALE was calculated using the life table of 1999 and the disability prevalence from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which was conducted with a sample of 13,523 households in 1998. The disability prevalence was measured using the annual prevalence of the long-term limitation of activities, which were divided into classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 according to the severity of the limitation. The disability weights were measured for each 6 class by conducting a survey of 16 healthcare professionals. The severity-adjusted disability prevalence was calculated by multiplying the disability prevalence of each class by the disability weights respectively. Healthy life years lost due to disability was calculated by multiplying the life expectancy by the severity-adjusted disability prevalence. Finally DALE was measured as the life expectancy minus healthy life years lost due to disability. RESUJLTS: DALE for 1999, which refers to the expectation of equivalent years of good health, were 72.5, 69.5 and 75.3 years, for total, for males and for females, respectively. The percentages for DALE out of the life expectancy were 95.8, 96.6 and 94.4% for total, for males and for females, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: DALE is a newly developed indicator, which could effectively show the healthy life expectancy of populations. A greater notice and use of DALE would be expected as life expectancies increase and the quality of life changes in Korea.
Summary
Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Predicting Cervix Cancer Screening Behavior.
Kun Sei Lee, Yong Ik Kim, Chang Yup Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):379-388.
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BACKRGROUND: Cervix cancer is the most common form of cancer among Korea women. In spite of proof that cervical cancer screening could reduce death rates substantially, the screening rates reported by previous Korean studies remain stubbornly very low. Behavioral studies to increase the cervix cancer screening rate are essential in order to develop the cancer screening program. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors which are related to the intention and behavior for cervix cancer screening using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). METHODS: The survey was conducted from July 21st to 26th in 1998. Of 3,218 women, 393(12.2%) between 30 and 65 years old, voluntarily participated in the survey in the 3 Myeons in Choongju city. Charge-free cervix cancer screening was provided for the subjects 3 months later. RESULTS: The R-square of both TPB and TRA to the intention (30% and 42%, respectively) was greater than the actual behavior (21% and 13%, respectively. TPB and TRA were found to provide an appropriate framework for the study of cervix cancer screening behavior. However, TRA was more powerful in explaining the intention, not only because the perceived behavioral control component exhibited lower reliability and validity than other components(attitude and subjective norm), but also because there may have been a few limitations in this study design. Consequently, the use of TRA is preferred in attempting to explain intention and actual behavior in this study. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a successful intervention program should focus on changing attitudes and reducing psychologic barriers, rather than on just providing information. Physician recommendations, and the support of family members and friends are also very important factors in cervix cancer program participation. Physicians, friends, family members, and opinion leaders in rural areas, all of whom could affect the individual subjective norm, may all have the potential to play great roles as facilitators.
Summary
Measuring the Burden of Major Cancers in Korea Using Healthy Life-Year (HeaLY).
Yong Jun Choi, Seok Jun Yoon, Chang Yup Kim, Youngsoo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):372-378.
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OBJECTIVES
This study introduced the healthy life-year(HeaLY), a composite indicator of disease burden, and used it to estimate the burden of major cancers in Korea. METHODS: We collected data from the national death certificate database, the national health insurance claims database and the abridged life table. This data was used to create a spreadsheet and estimate the burden of major cancers by sex in terms of HeaLYs. RESULTS: The burden of 10 major cancers for males was 2,248.97 person-year in terms of HeaLYs. Stomach cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer were responsible for 75.2% of the burden of 10 major cancers The disease burden of 10 major cancers for females was estimated to be 1,567.58 person-years. About two thirds of HeaLYs lost were from stomach cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer. The rankings among 10 major cancers were somewhat different in terms of both HeaLYs and deaths as the HeaLY method considers both mortality and morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitations of the data sources, we conclude that HeaLY can aid in setting policy priorities concerning major cancers by estimating the disease burden of these cancers. Time-series analysis of the disease burden using HeaLY and DALY will elucidate the strengths and weaknesses of both methods.
Summary
Changes in Quality of Care for Cesarean Section after Implementation of Diagnosis-Related Groups/Prospective Payment System.
Jun Yim, Young Hun Kwon, Du Ho Hong, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):347-353.
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OBJECTIVES
To determine the impacts of Diagnosis-Related Groups/Prospective Payment System (DRG/PPS) on the quality of care in cases of Cesarean section and to describe the policy implications for the early stabilization of DRG/PPS in Korea. METHODS: Data was collected from the medical records of 380 patients who had undergone Cesarean sections in 40 hospitals participating in the DRG/PPS Demonstration Program since 1999. Cesarean sections were performed in 122 patients of the FFS(Fee-For-Service) group and 258 patients of the DRG/PPS group. Measurements of quality used included essential tests of pre- and post-operation, and the PPI(Physician Performance Index) score. The PPI was developed by two obstetricians. RESULTS: Univariate analysis demonstrated significant differences in PPI scores according to the payment systems. With respect to the mean of PPI scores, a higher score was found in the DRG/PPS group than in the FFS group. However, the adjusted effect did not show significant differences between the FFS group and the DRG/PPS group. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that the problem of poor quality may not be related to the implementation of DRG/PPS in Cesarean section. However, this study did not consider the validity and reliability of the process measurement, and it did not exclude the possibility of data omission in medical records.
Summary
Inter-hospital Comparison of Cesarean Section Rates after Risk Adjustment.
Sang Il Lee, Young Ho Khang, Beom Man Ha, Moo Song Lee, Weechang Kang, Hee Jo Koo, Chang Yup Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):337-346.
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OBJECTIVE
To determine the clinical risk factors associated with the mode of delivery decision and to compare cesarean section rates after adjusting for risk factors identified among Korean hospitals. METHODS: Data were collected from 9 general hospitals in two provincial regions by medical record abstraction during February 2000. A total of 3,467 cases were enrolled and analyzed by stepwise logistic regression. Performance of the risk-adjustment model (discrimination and calibration) was evaluated by the C statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Crude rates, predicted rates with 95% confidence intervals, and adjusted rates of cesarean section were calculated and compared among the hospitals. RESULTS: The average crude cesarean section rate was 53.2%, ranging from 39.4% to 65.7%. Several risk factors such as maternal age, previous history of cesarean section, placenta previa, placental abruption, malpresentation, amniotic fluid abnormality, gestational anemia, infant body weight, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and chorioamnionitis were found to have statistically significant effects on the mode of delivery. It was confirmed that information about most of these risk factors was able to be collected through the national health insurance claims database in Korea. Performance of the risk-adjustment model was good (c statistic=0.815, Hosmer-Lemeshow test=0.0621). Risk factor adjustment did lead to some change in the rank of hospital cesarean section rates. The crude rates of three hospitals were beyond 95% confidence intervals of the predicted rates. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that cesarean section rates in Korean hospitals are too high, it is apparent that some policy interventions need to be introduced. The concept and methodology of risk adjustment should be used in the process of health policy development to lower the cesarean section rate in Korea.
Summary
Current Status and Reasons for the Location Change of Primary Medical Institutions in Korea.
Beom Man Ha, Soon Ae Shin, Jin Seok Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):219-227.
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OBJECTIVES
To understand the current status of the opening, closing and relocation of primary medical institutes in Korea and identify the underlying decision factors. METHODS: Sources of analyzed data included the medical institutional master file at the National Health Insurance Corporation (1998, 2000) and Regional Statistic Annual Bulletins. To investigate changes including the opening, closing and relocation, a total of primary medicalinstitutions (16,757 in 1998, 19,267 in 2000) were analysed. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2000, there was a 15.0% (2,510) increase in the number of primary medical institutions and the rate of increase in the rural area was higher than the urban area, and higher for specialty clinics than primary practice. However, these findings did not suggestany improvement in the maldistribution of primary medical institutions. During the time period studied, newly opened and closed primary medical institutions numbered 4,085 and 1,573, respectively. Additionally, institutions thatrelocated numbered 2,729, or 16.3%of all primary medical institutions in operation in 1998. These openings and closings were more frequent among young doctors. As a result of our analysis on the underlying regional factors forrelocation, the factors that were statistically significant were local per capita tax burden and the number of schools per ten thousand persons. In the case of institutional factors, movements were significantly associated with gender and the location of primary medical institutions. CONCLUSIONS: In order to establish effective long-term intervention for primary medical institutions, further study and monitoring of primary medical institutions and the dentification of factors influencing opening location and relocation is necessary.
Summary
Analysis of the Abstracts of Cancer Related Articles Published from 1990 to 1996 in Korea.
Chang Yup Kim, Young Ho Khang, Young Sung Lee, Chul Whan Kang, Keun Young Yoo, Gilwon Kang, Beom Man Ha
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):200-210.
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OBJECTIVE
To explore the status of cancer research in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: Thirty-eight medical journals, published in Korea between 1990 and 1996, were reviewed for abstracts relating to cancer research. Of the 5,899 eligible abstracts related to cancer, 4,732 were collected and evaluated. RESULTS: Including first author and first two co-authors, a total of 7,427 authors were identified. Those who published an average of one or more article per one year were defined as cancer researchers for this study. This group, however, accounted for a small proportion of the total (3.1%). Analysis of the selected abstracts showed that the study goals in more than half focused on pathophysiologic mechanisms. Studies that were designed to use causal relationships such as cohort studies and randomized controlled trials were rare. A greater number of analytic and experimental studies were found in abstracts published by the cancer researcher group. More advanced study designs that explored causal relationships and analytic procedures were found in abstracts published later than those abstracts published from 1990 to 1992. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that researchers who published more articles adopted more advanced study designs. This study provides primary data that can be used to compare the status of cancer research in future studies.
Summary
Relationship between Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Volume and Associated Immediate Outcome.
Young Ho Khang, Yong Ik Kim, Chang Yup Kim, Young Sung Lee, Sunmean Kim, Jin Seok Lee, Byung Hee Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):9-20.
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OBJECTIVES
To explore the relationship between Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) volume and the associated immediate outcome. METHODS: A total of 1,379 PTCAs were performed in 25 hospitals in Korea between October 1 and December 31 in 1997. Data from 1,317 PTCAs (95.5%) were collected through medical record abstraction. Inter-observer reliability of the data was examined using the Kappa statistic on a subsample of 110 PTCA procedures from five hospitals. Intra-observer reliability of the data was also examined. PTCA success and immediate adverse outcomes were selected as the outcome variables. A successful PTCA was defined as a case that shows less than 50% diameter stenosis and more than 20% reduction of diameter stenosis. Immediate adverse outcomes included deaths during the same hospitalization, emergency coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) within 24 hours after PTCA, and acute myocardial infarction within 24 hours after PTCA. The numbers of PTCAs performed in 1997 per hospital were used as the volume variables. RESULTS: Without adjusting for patient risk factors that may affect outcomes, procedures at high volume hospitals (200 cases per year) had a greater success rate (P=0.001) than low volume hospitals. There was a marginally significant difference (P=0.070) in major adverse outcome rates between high and low volume hospitals. After adjusting for risk factors, there were significant differences in procedural failure and major adverse outcome rates between high and low volume hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for patient clinical risk factors, the hospital volume of PTCA was associated with immediate outcomes. It is recommended that a PTCA volume per year be established in order to improve the immediate outcome of this procedure in Korea.
Summary
Factors Affecting Users' Satisfaction with Order Communicating System.
Jin Seok Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Bum Man Ha, Gilwon Kang, Byoung Yik Kim, Yong Ik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(4):436-448.
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OBJECTIVES
To identify the factors affecting users' satisfaction with the Order Communicating System(OCS) and to highlight the factors important for the successful establishment of OCS. METHODS: A Users Satisfaction survey was sent to 4,513 people, consisting of 1,503 doctors, 2,379 nurses, 255 pharmacists and 370 administrative workers in 16 hospitals which had introduced OCS. The response rate was 63.9%. Measurement of users' satisfaction was performed with the instrument which was used in Doll's study. Some aspects of Doll's instrument were adjusted according to the aims of this study. The classifying sections of this survey included age, job and status classification, computer experience , OCS education, duration of daily OCS use, type of order entering, number of personnel in the Hospital Information System's department, cost of OCS, problem frequency, proportion of work managed by hand, OCS type, and Hospital establishment type. RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between satisfaction level and managerial status throughout all job classifications. Irrespective of the importance of OCS education as a factor relating to users' satisfaction, the additional work load caused by OCS lowered users' satisfaction. Different factors affected users' satisfaction according to job and status classification. The composition of factors affecting the pharmacist and administrative worker satisfaction levels was simpler than that of the doctor and nurse levels. There were no statistically significant differences between the actual computer experience duration of daily OCS use and users' satisfaction with OCS. CONCLUSIONS: There was an understandable relationship between users' attitude to OCS and factors affecting users' satisfaction. The results of this study could be used as a basis for the successful expansion of the operation of OCS. But more detailed studies on users' satisfaction and further improvements of methodologies are required for the successful establishment of OCS.
Summary
Impacts of DRG Payment System on Behavior of Medical Insurance Claimants.
Beom Man Ha, Gilwon Kang, Hyoung Keun Park, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(4):393-401.
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OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the impacts of the DRG payment system on the behavior of medical insurance claimants. Specifically, we evaluated the case-mix index, the numbers of diagnosis and procedure codes utilized, and the corresponding rate of diagnosis codes before, during and after implementation of the DRG payment system. METHODS: In order to evaluate the case-mix index, the number of diagnosis and procedure codes utilized, we used medical insurance claim data from all medical facilities that participated in the DRG-based Prospective Payment Demonstration Program. This medical insurance claim data consisted of both pre-demonstration program data (fee-for-service, from November, 1998 to January, 1999) and post-demonstration program data (DRG-based Prospective Payment, from February, 1999 to April, 1999). And in order to evaluate the corresponding rate of diagnosis codes utilized, we reviewed 820 medical records from 20 medical institutes that were selected by random sampling methods. RESULTS: The case-mix index rate decreased after the DRG-based Prospective Payment Demonstration Program was introduced. The average numbers of different claim diagnosis codes used decreased (new DRGs from 2.22 to 1.24, and previous DRGs from 1.69 to 1.21), as did the average number of claim procedure codes used (new DRGs from 3.02 to 2.16, and previous DRGs from 2.97 to 2.43). With respect to the time of participation in the program, the change in number of claim procedure codes was significant, but the change in number of claim diagnosis codes was not. The corresponding rate of claim diagnosis codes increased (from 57.9% to 82.6%), as did the exclusion rate of claim diagnosis codes (from 16.5% to 25.1%). CONCLUSIONS: After the implementation of the DRG payment system, the corresponding rate of insurance claim codes and the corresponding exclusion rate of claim diagnosis codes both increased, because the inducement system for entering the codes for claim review was changed.
Summary
Measuring the Burden of Major Cancers due to Premature Death in Korea.
Seok Jun Yoon, Yong Ik Kim, Chang Yup Kim, Hyejung Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):231-238.
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OBJECTIVE
To estimate the burden of diseases in Korea especially caused by major cancers using the YLL(years of life lost due to premature death) measurement. METHODS: First, we determined the parameters: such as age-specific standard life expectancy, age on death, sex, cause of death by analyzing the national death certificate data and life table collected during 1996 provided by the National Statistical Office. Secondly, we estimated the age group-specific YLL by employing standard expected years of life lost(SEYLL). Thirdly, final burden of disease due to premature death was estimated by using YLLs measurement which developed by global burden of disease study group. RESULTS: The burden of premature death by cancer for male was attributed mainly to liver cancer(514.5 person-year), stomach cancer(436.4 person-year), and lung cancer(367.7 person-year). Each of these cancers was responsible for the loss of over 100 person-year based on our YLL measurement. The burden of premature death by cancer for female was attributed mainly to liver cancer(135.1 person-year), stomach cancer(252.1 person-year), and lung cancer(121.8 person-year). Each of these cancers was responsible for the loss of over 100 person year based on our YLL measurement. CONCLUSION: We found the YLL method employed in this study was appropriate to quantify the burden of premature death. Thereby, it would provide a rational bases to plan a national health policy regarding premature death caused by cancer.
Summary
Health Behaviors Related to Hypertension in Rural Population of Korea.
Chang Yup Kim, Kun Sei Lee, Young Ho Khang, Jun Yim, Yong Jun Choi, Hae Kook Lee, Kyung Ho Lee, Yong Ik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):56-68.
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OBJECTIVES
To describe health behaviors related to hypertension in rural population of Korea and focused to identify inappropriate awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. METHODS: We surveyed 5,517 adults (2,288 males, 3,229 females) older than 30 years in 58 rural areas, purposely sampled nationwide from December 1996 to February 1997. Blood pressure was checked twice at the time of the first visit. For those who showed high blood pressure using the JNC-6 criteria at their initial visit, we followed up their blood pressure one week later. Also information on the health behavior related to hypertension was collected through the person-to-person interview using structured questionnaire at the first visit. RESULTS: For the past one year, females had more experiences of checking their blood pressure than males (77.3% versus 69.5%, p=0.001). Through the results of consecutively checked blood pressure, only 51.7% of the hypertensives were aware of their condition. Of the hypertensives who aware of their condition, 44.4% did not receive any medication and/or recommendation. And 50.4% of the hypertensives who had anti-hypertensive medication were classified as still having hypertensive blood pressure by 160/95 mmHg criteria. Of the medicated, 54.8% were found to take medication regularly for the past six months. Among the medicated, only 11.4% knew the name of anti-hypertensive drug they had. CONCLUSIONS: 'Rule of halves', which works in the situation of no special efforts for hypertension control, was identified. This study showed that much efforts to control hypertension would be required in the rural population of Korea.
Summary
Validation of the International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition Based Injury Severity Score(ICISS).
Yoon Kim, Ku Young Jung, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):538-545.
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OBJECTIVE
To compare the predictive power of International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition(ICD-10) based International Classification of Diseases based Injury Severity Score(ICISS) with Trauma and Injury Severity Score(TRISS) and International Classification of Diseases 9th Edition Clinical Modification(ICD-9CM) based ICISS in the injury severity measure. METHODS: ICD-10 version of Survival Risk Ratios(SRRs) was derived from 47,750 trauma patients from 35 Emergency Centers for 1 year. The predictive power of TRISS, the ICD-9CM based ICISS and ICD-10 based ICISS were compared in a group of 367 severely injured patients admitted to two university hospitals. The predictive power was compared by using the measures of discrimination(disparity, sensitivity, specificity, misclassification rates, and ROC curve analysis) and calibration(Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics), all calculated by logistic regression procedure. RESULTS: ICD-10 based ICISS showed a lower performance than TRISS and ICD-9CM based ICISS. When age and Revised Trauma Score(RTS) were incorporated into the survival probability model, however, ICD-10 based ICISS full model showed a similar predictive power compared with TRISS and ICD-9CM based ICISS full model. ICD-10 based ICISS had some disadvantages in predicting outcomes among patients with intracranial injuries. However, such weakness was largely compensated by incorporating age and RTS in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The ICISS methodology can be extended to ICD-10 horizon as a standard injury severity measure in the place of TRISS, especially when age and RTS were incorporated in the model. In patients with intracranial injuries, the predictive power of ICD-10 based ICISS was relatively low because of differences in the classifying system between ICD-10 and ICD-9CM.
Summary
Cost-benefit Analysis of Massive Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Korea.
Chang Yup Kim, Sunmean Kim, Nami Hwang
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):317-324.
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OBJECTIVES
Since 1991, nationwide massive neonatal screen-ing program for phenylketonuria (PKU) and congenital hypothyroidism have been performed in Korea. As in many other countries, efficiency of this program has not been definitely concluded. For the purpose of evaluation of this program, from the perspective of efficiency, a cost-benefit analysis was carried out. METHODS: Costs of the detection and the treatment program were compared with the projected benefit(avoided costs) that results from the prevention of the mental retardation associated with the disorders due to PKU and hypothyroidism. Costs and benefits were discounted at an annual rate of 5 %, and duration of life-long labor was assumed to be 30 years. Cost and benefit were estimated based on the detection rates of one case of PKU per 5,572 and one case of congenital hypothyroidism per 32,554 babies screened during 1991-1997. RESULTS: The benefit-cost ratio was 0.418. The sensitivity analysis for the discount rates and labor durations showed that most cost-benefit ratios were lower than one(1.0) except when discount rate was changed to 3% and detection rate to two- or threefold and/or labor duration to 40 years. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this study suggested that present program of mass screening for PKU and congenital hypothyroidism could not be justified in terms of efficiency. It doesn't coincide with the results of previous studies in major developed countries, presumably because of difference in detection rates and welfare cost for the disabled.
Summary
An Application of Delphi Method to the Assessment of Current Status of Cancer Research.
Young Ho Khang, Seok Jun Yoon, Gil Won Kang, Chang Yup Kim, Keun Young Yoo, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):844-856.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Globally, cancer research has been considered one of the most important field of biomedical researches. Recently, in Korea, there are increasing concerns about cancer research and the development of national cancer control programme. For the efficient investment in cancer research at the national level, strategic approach is needed based on the nationwide information about current status of research. However even the basic data on cancer research have not been systematically collected, and are not available when necessary. The aim of this study is to assess current status of cancer research. For this purpose, this study applied two round Delphi method in which fifteen experts in cancer research fields participated. They rated each items on the initial list at the first round, and modified their responses at the second round. Panels responded that pathogenesis of cancer, research and development of cancer drug, and oncogene, etc. are the most urgent and important research fields. They assessed national level of cancer research as being 49.6% of the world highest level. Coefficient of variation tended to be lowered with the iteration. Predictive stability was evaluated to be lower in items of urgency than in items of importance and research level. Although this study shares the same limitations in the selection of the experts with many other Delphi studies, it provides a primary data that would be required to plan the national strategy of the cancer research.
Summary
Medical Care Utilization of Tuberculosis Patients in Private Sector.
Gil Won Kang, Seok Jun Yoon, Chang Yup Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):814-827.
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In this study we analyzed the insurance claims data to investigate the medical care utilization pattern of tuberculosis patients in private sector. We selected the claims of principal or secondary diagnosis with tuberculosis from claims database of National Federation of Medical Insurance, from December 1995 to November 1996. Both spell-based analysis and person-based analysis were carried out. In spell-based analysis, type and location of treatment facilities, distribution of diagnoses, number of outpatient/inpatient treatments were analyzed. Additionally in person-based analysis, number of tuberculosis patients, demographic characteristics, number of treatments per person, frequency and pattern of change in source of care were analyzed. The results were as follows 1. The number of treatments with tuberculosis was 863,641 from 1 December 1995 to 30 November 1996. The number of patients was 313.964. 2. Most of tuberculosis patients in private sector were treated in general hospital(45.8%) and clinics(42.2%) 3. About 77.7% of tuberculosis patients who were treated more than two times did not change the source of carey. 18,9% of tuberculosis patients changed source of care only once. Even when we limited tuberculosis patient to those who were treated more than five times and whose treatment period were longer than six months, 94.7% of patients did not change source of care at all, or changed treatment facility only once. 4. The probability of change in source of care was higher in pulmonary tuberculosis, in twenties, and in rural area respectively than other tuberculosis. In conclusion, healer shopping of tuberculosis patients was not serious as expected. However special attention is needed to pulmonary tuberculosis in twenties and rural area
Summary
Performance Evaluation of Emergency Medical Center.
Chul Hwan Kang, Yoon Kim, Pyung Soo Lee, Young Dae Kwon, Chang Yup Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):884-892.
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Currently, there are 100 community emergency centers which expect to provide professional emergency care like Level 1 trauma centers in U.S.A. To evaluate Performance of emergency center, most studies have been widely adopted death rate based methods such as Trauma and Injury Severity Score(TRISS) and A Severity Characterization of Trauma(ASCOT). However, these methods are only applicable in situation where registration process of trauma patients is well established. Therefore, an alternative method should be applied to evaluate performance of emergency centers in Korea which does not have well-developed registration scheme. This study aims to develop new performance measures which are applicable to Korea and evaluate performance of 35 community emergency centers through new measures. The new measures are included that 'W-statistic' ; death rate calculated on the basis of International Classification based Injury Severity Score(ICISS), and 'the degree of severity' ; rate of severe trauma patients of each emergency medical centers. The study results can be summarized as follows. First, about 34% of sample emergency centers show they provide proper care in terms of their function. Second, tertiary hospitals, university hospitals, and hospitals located in Seoul show higher severity degree of patients and lower severity-adjusted death rate.
Summary
Adoption and Its Determining Factors of Computerized Tomography in Korea.
Seok Jun Yoon, Sun Mean Kim, Chul Hwan Kang, Chang Yup Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(1):195-207.
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High price equipment is one of the major factors that increases national health expenditure in developed countries. Computerized Tomography(CT), one of the important high price equipment, has been concerns of health service researchers and policy makers in many countries. In Korea, CT, first introduced in 1984, have spreaded nationwide with rapid speed. Though the Committee for Approving Import of High Price Medical Equipment, founded in 1981, tried to regulate the introduction of high price medical equipment including CT, the effort resulted in failure. The exact situation of diffusion of the high price equipment, however, was not yet investigated. We aimed at the description of the diffusion of CT in Korea and analysis of influencing factors in hospitals for the adoption of CT. We mainly used the database of CT, made in 1996 by the National Federation of Medical Insurance for the purpose of insurance payment for CT. Also characteristics of hospitals were gathered from yearbooks published by the central and local governments and by the Korean Hospital Association. We calculated the cumulative number of the CT per one million population year by year. In turn, multiple linear logistic regression was done to fine out the contributing factors for the adoption of CT by each hospital. In the logistic regression model, it is regarded as dependent factor whether a hospital retained CT or not in 1988 and 1993. The major categories of the independent factors were hospital characteristics, environmental factors and competitive conditions of hospitals at the period of the adoption. The results are as follows : Numberof CT scanners per one million persons in Korea marked more higher level compared with those of most OECD countries. Major influencing factors on the adoption of CT scanners were hospital characteristics, such as hospital referral level, and competitive condition of hospitals, such as number of CT scanners per 10,000 persons in each district where the hospital was located. In Korea, CT diffused with rather rapid speed, comparable with those of the United States and Japan. The major factors contributing on the adoption of CT for hospitals were competitive condition and hospital characteristics rather than regional health care need for Ct. In conclusion, a kind of regulating mechanism would be necessary for the prevention of the indiscreet adoption and inefficient use of high price equipment including CT.
Summary
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Back School Program for Occupational Low Back pain Patients.
Yeong Su Ju, Mi Na Ha, Sang Hwan Han, Ho Jang Kwon, Soo Hun Cho, Chang Yup Kim, Sun Min Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):347-358.
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Although occupational low back pain accounts for 20~40% of all occupational illness and injury, there are limited numbers of studies regarding the effectiveness of back school program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic benefit of back school program for early return to work of occupational low back pain patients in the current occupational injury compensation and management system. The cost-benefit analysis in this study was conducted to evaluate the relative magnitude of benefit to cost. The total cost was estimated by calculating the value of components in back school program according to governmental budget protocol. The back school program was consisted of three major approaches, pain center, work-hardening program and functional restoration program and each of components had various facilities and experts. The total amount of cost was estimated as 250,866,220 won per year. The most promising type of back school program were quite intensive (a 3 to 5-week stay in a specialized center), therefore, if we adopted the 5-week stay course, 10 courses could be held in a year. Following to the medical act, 20 patients per doctor could participate in a each course, ie, total 200 patients in a year. As a result, we could estimate the cost of 1,254,331 won a patient. we estimated the benefit by using data of a few local labor offices about average medical treatment beneficiary and off-duty beneficiary of 46 occupational low back pain patients in 1994. Ullman and Larsson(1977) mentioned that the group of chronic low back pain patients who participated in back school program needed less time to recover by 48.4% of beneficiary duration. And in the trying to estimate the benefit, we asked 10 rehabilitation board certificate doctors about reduction proportion of treatment cost by introducing back school program. The answered reduction proportions were in the range of 30~45%, average 39%. As a final result, we could see that the introduction of back school program in treatment of chronic occupational low back pain patients could produce the benefit to cost ratio as 3.90 and 6.28. And we could conclude that the introduction of back school program was beneficial to current occupational injury compensation and management system.
Summary
Professional Socialization of Medical Students.
Dal Sun Han, Byung Hee Cho, Sangsoo Bae, Chang Yup Kim, Sang Il Lee, Young Jo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):265-276.
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This paper concerns professional socialization of medical students. Professional socialization, in the context of this paper, means the process through which a layperson becomes a doctor equipped with professional identity and values. While medical education does not include such process in the curriculum, medical students obtain certain values and identity informally. The dependent variables were professional values and professionalism. The former means the desirable attributes required to conducting professional works such as humane attitudes, science-oriented mind, capability for organizational management. The latter means socio-political reasoning with which doctors can rationalize their privileges such as autonomy. A specially designed questionnaire was developed. The data were collected from five medical schools for 1,318 students in 1994. A total of 1,070 cases were finally included in the statistical analysis. The students emphasized the human factor in the professional values. Their attitude did not change with the grade. Other independent variables such as motives for entering a medical school, socioeconomic status, satisfaction with medical education, etc. also did not influence professional values. It implies that professional values were not consolidated among the students. However, the factors of professionalism change significantly with the grade. It implies that the students paid more attention to socio-political issues related to doctor`s interests as the grade went up. And the factor scores for professionalism were higher for those students who had more positive attitude towards doing medical practice for profit, expected higher income, and were more conservative about social reform. Other independent variables did not influence professionalism. It seems that the students also give emphasis on professionalism, like current medical doctors, mainly because of their concern with recent unfavorable changes in economic conditions of medical care providers.
Summary
Determining the Location of Urban Health Sub-center According to Geographic Accessibility.
Kun Sei Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):215-226.
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Decentralization to local governments and amending of Health center Law are to promote the efforts of health planning at the level of local agencies. In the health facility planning, it is important to take into account that what to be built, where to be located, how far should be service area and so forth, because health facilities are immovable, and require capital as well as personnel and consumable supplies. The aim of our study, answering to the question of 'where to be located?`, is to determine the best location of urban health sub-center. At the local level, planning is the matter of finding the best location of specific facility, in relation to population needs. We confine the accessibility, which is basic to location planning, to geographic one. Location-Allocation Model is used to solve the problem where the location is to maximize geographic accessibility. To minimize the weighted travel distance, objective function, Rk= aijwidij is used. Distances are measured indirectly by map measure-meter with l:25,000 Suwon map, and each potential sites, 10 administrative Dongs in Kwonson Gu, Suwon, are weighted by each number of households, total population, maternal age group, child age group, old age group, Relief for the livelihood, and population/primary health clinics. we find that Kuwoon-Dong, Seodun-Dong, Seryu3-Dong, according the descending orders, are best sites which can minimize the weighted distance, and conclude that it is reasonable to determine the location of urban health sub-center among those sites.
Summary
The epidemiology of delays in a teaching hospital.
Yoon Kim, Kun Sei Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin, Sang Il Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(4):650-660.
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This study aims to describe the causes of medically unnecessary hospital stay at a teaching tertiary hospital, using modified version of Delay Tool in which the causes of delay are divided into six major categories ; delay related to test scheduling, test results, surgery, medical staff, patient/family, and administration. For the analysis of hospital stay, 6,479 inpatient-days were reviewed in two medical and four surgical departments for one month. Initially inappropriate hospital stays were identified using Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol(AEP), and causes of delay listed in Delay Tool were assigned to each of them. In both medical and surgical services, the most important cause of delay was related to medical staffs, ranging from 3.6% to 51.6% of total inpatient days. Next important category was delay related to test scheduling in medical services(4.7~9.2%), and delay related to surgery in surgical services(7.3~15.0%). Among subcategories of delay related to medical staffs, delay due to conservative care was the most important cause of inappropriate hospital stay(2.9~46.4%). Each clinical departments had different distribution among delay categories, which could not be fully justified by their clinical characteristics. The Delay Tool would be helpful in exploring factors related to the inefficient use of hospital beds. As a measurement tool of inappropriate hospital stay, however, the Delay Tool should be refined in the definitions of categories and its contents.
Summary
A study on the practice variations according to physician characteristics.
Eun Kyeong Jeong, Ok Ryun Moon, Chang Yup Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(4):614-627.
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It is well known that a physician's personal characteristic affects his practice pattern. Furthermore, a physician's specialty has powerful influences on his practice pattern. However, despite the fact specialization has received the most attention for its influence on physician's service behavior, few studies have been conducted on the variations of contents and volume of physician's services. This study has intended to identify factors influencing the practice variations according to various physician characteristics. There are some other evidences that medical care providers are different in using of health services and resources in Korea. Four physician characteristics were selected for the analysis, two demographical factors, age and sex, and two practice factors, place of practice and medical specialty. Also, three indicators of service amount(total amount of insurance claim bill, number of visits per case, number of prescriptions per case) were selected. From the pool of insurance claims for ambulatory care received by the Korean National Federation of Medical Insurance(NFMI), 84,898 cases were randomly sampled. In the meantime using physician database of NFMI, 613 general practitioners(GP), 107 regular family physicians(FP), 483 'grandfather' family physicians(GFP), and 1,157 specialist practitioners(SP) were randomly sampled. Their different practice contents were compared concerning the specialty, age groups, sex, and practice sites(urban-rural). Specialist physicians tend to provide more costly care than do generalists. General practitioners and family physicians usually make fewer following visits and prescriptions. Age is also the important factor in determining the amount of services, which is highest at the physician's age group of 40's. Female doctors and urban practitioners use much more resources than their counterparts respectively. Research findings suggest that physician's characteristics particularly the specialty can affect practice patterns and resource utilizations. Other characteristics such as age and sex are not controllable but physician's specialty is relatively easily controllable during the entire phases of policy implementation. This is all the more true in the individual's initial decision of his specialty. Specialization therefore should receive policymaker's attention for its potential influence on medical care utilization and health care expenditure.
Summary
An analysis an dassessment of diagnostic and therapeutic process in some freqent admissions and operations.
Chang Yup Kim, Yoon Kim, Young Dae Kwon, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(3):400-411.
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The aim of this study is to analyze the variations among hospitals and hospital groups in resource use and procedures of diagnostic and therapeutic process, such as laboratory tests, radiologic examinations, tissue diagnosis, timing of surgery after admission, the time required for operation. The study was performed for five procedures including cesarean section(C/S), appendectomy, cholecystectomy, cataract extraction, and pediatric pneumonia. The 2,316 subjects were selected from medical insurance claims list, and from this list 413 cases were sampled for medical record review. The patterns of resource utilization and process of treatment were described according to hospitals and characteristics of hospital groups. The major results were as follows: 1. The numbers of laboratory and radiologic tests showed significant difference among hospitals and hospital groups. In case of hospital groups, we could find tendencies of more tests with increasing hospital bed size. 2. In general, the proportion of operative cases evaluated by tissue diagnosis postoperatively among all operations ranged from 28.3% to 1005. The proportion varied among hospital groups, of which general hospital A group(more than 15 specially) showed the highest proportion. 3. Post-admission delay until operation and the time required for operative procedure were not invariable among hospitals and hospital groups. The duration of operation in tertiary hospitals was slightly shorter than general hospitals, with varying statistical significance. We could find that probably there were differences of quality among hospitals in some components of procedures, which suggested that the implementation of quality assurance activities would be mandatory. In this study, we simply described the patterns of resource utilization and some features of clinical process, with institution of the need for advanced studies with in-depth analyses for each component of diagnosis and treatment procedures.
Summary
An Appropriateness Evaluation of Cesarean Section, Cholecystectomy, and Admission in Pediatric Pneumonia.
Chang Yup Kim, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Young Seong Lee, Young Dae Kwon, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):413-428.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of some kinds of surgery and admission, such as cesarean section (C/S), cholecystectomy, and pediatric pneumonia. For appropriateness evaluation, we ourselves developed some criteria, which were included in the category of explicit and linear criteria, with the assistance of specialists of relevant clinical field. The evaluation of appropriateness was performed by two family physicians. The major findings were as follows: 1. For ceserean section, 77.6% of deliveries were determined to be 'appropriate', but the level of appropriateness was not significantly different among hospitals between hospital groups by size. The most frequent indication of C/S was repeated operation, followed by cephalopelvic disproportion(CPD). The labor trials for vaginal delivery among repeated C/S and CPD cases were performed in 24.5% of pertinent deliveries. 2. About 73.8% of cholecystectomy cases was appropriate to one of the surgical indications, without significant differences among hospitals. Of surgical indications, 'sufficiently frequent and intense symptom recurrence' was the most frequent, and 'confirmed acute cholecystitis' was the second. 3. Of children admitted due to pneumonia, only 57.4% of cases satisfied admission criteria, and the level of appropriateness of admission was different among hospitals. The common reasons for admission were 'failure to initial treatment', 'suspected bacterial pnermonia', 'young infant', etc. We could find that there were differences of quality among hospitals in some procedures, especially in the pediatric pneumonia and labor trial before C/S, which suggested that the implementation of quality assurance activities would be necessary in this country. In this study, we used some simple and primitive research tools and the numbers of subjects and tracer procedures were limited. So advanced studies with plentiful subjects and more representative diseases or procedures should be tried.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health