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Chang Hee Lee 8 Articles
Effects of Bisphenol A on the Placental Function and Reproduction in Rats.
Chae Kwan Lee, Seog Hyun Kim, Deog Hwan Moon, Jeong Ho Kim, Byung Chul Son, Dae Hwan Kim, Chang Hee Lee, Hwi Dong Kim, Jung Won Kim, Jong Eun Kim, Chae Un Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(3):330-336.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like environmental endocrine disrupter, on the placental function and reproduction in rats. The mRNA levels of the placental prolactin-growth hormone (PRL-GH) gene family, placental trophoblast cell frequency and reproductive data were analyzed. METHODS: The pregnancies of F344 Fisher rats (160 g +/- 20 g) were detected by the presence of the copulatory plug or sperm in the vaginal smear, which marked Day 0 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with a sesame oil vehicle. The two remaining groups were injected with 50 or 500 mg/kg B.W/day of BPA, resuspended in sesame oil, on either days 7 to 11 or 16 to 20 of pregnancy, with the rats sacrificed on either day 11 or 20, respectively. The mRNA levels of PRL-GH and Pit-1a and b isotype genes were analyzed by Northern blot hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The hormone concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, and the frequency of the placental trophoblast cells observed by a histochemical study. Reproductive data, such as the placental weight and litter size, were surveyed on day 20. The fetal weight was surveyed for 4 weeks after birth. A statistical analysis was carried out using the SAS program (version 8.1). RESULTS: The mRNA levels of the PRL-GH gene family, such as placental lactogen I, Iv and II, prolactin like protein A, C and Cv, and decidual prolactin-related protein were significantly reduced due to BPA exposure. The mRNA levels of the Pit-1a and b isotype genes, which induce the expression of the PRL-GH gene family in the rat placenta, were also reduced due to BPA exposure. The PL-Iv and PL-II concentrations were reduced in the BPA exposed group. During the middle to last stage of pregnancy (Days 11-20), a high dose of BPA exposure reduced the frequency of spongiotrophoblast cells, which are responsible for the secretion of the PRL-GH hormones. Reproductive data, such as the placental and fetal weights and the litter size, were reduced, but that of the pregnancy period was extended in the BPA exposed compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: BPA disrupts the placental functions in rats, which leads to reproductive disorders.
Summary
Effects of Chromium (VI) Exposure on the Placental Function and Reproduction in Rats.
Heun Lee, Jin Ho Chun, Deog Hwan Moon, Chae Un Lee, Sung Goo Kang, Byung Chul Son, Dae Hwan Kim, Chang Hee Lee, Jung Won Kim, Chae Kwan Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(2):157-165.
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OBJECTIONS: This study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of chromium (VI) on the placental function and reproduction in rats. For the study, the placental prolactin-growth hormone (PRL-GH) gene expression, placental trophoblast cell differentiation and reproductive data were analyzed. METHODS: The pregnancies of F344 Fisher rats were checked by the presence of a copulatory plug or sperm in the vaginal smear, which was defined as day 0 of the pregnancy. Pregnant rats were divided into the three groups. The control group was given tap water (chromium level < 0.001 ppm) and the remaining groups were given 250 or 750 ppm of chromium (VI) [as potassium dichromate], from day 7 to 19 of the pregnancy. Rats were sacrificed at days 11 and 20 of pregnancy. The mRNA levels of PRL-GH and Pit-1a and b isotype genes were analyzed by Northern blot hybridization and reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The hormonal concentration was analyzed by radioimmunoassay, and the differentiation of placental trophoblast cells were observed by histochemical studies. Reproductive data, such as placental and fetal weights, pregnancy period, and litter size, were surveyed at day 20 of pregnancy and after birth. A statistical analysis was carried out using the SAS program (version 8.1). RESULTS: The mRNA levels of the prolactin-growth hormone (PRL-GH) family of genes were dose dependently reduced by chromium exposure. The mRNA levels of Pit-1a and b isotype genes that induce the expression of the PRL-GH family of genes were also reduced by chromium exposure. The PRL-GH hormonal concentration in the rat placenta, fetus and maternal blood were decreased by chromium exposure. In the middle stage of pregnancy (day 11), a high dose of chromium suppressed the differentiation of spongiotrophoblast cells that secret the PRLGH hormones. In the last stage of pregnancy (day 20), a high dose of chromium induced apoptosis of placental cells. Reproductive data, such as placental and fetal weights, litter size, were reduced, but the pregnancy period was extended in the group exposed to chromium compared with the controls. CONCLUSION: Chromium (VI) disrupts the ordered functions of the placenta, which leads to reproductive disorders in rats.
Summary
Relationship of Level of Stress, Life Style, Subjective Symptoms and Clinical Diagnosis in Clients taken Multiphasic Screening Program.
Jun Han Park, Jin Ho Chun, Jang Mi Kang, Byung Chul Son, Dae Hwan Kim, Chang Hee Lee, Kui Won Jeong, Sang Hwa Urm
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):728-739.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To improve wellness and quality of life by recognizing the health effects of stress, the author estimated the relationships between stress, subjective symptoms and clinical diagnosis through a questionnaire and a battery of specified laboratory tests - electrocardiography, blood pressure, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase(gamma-GTP), fasting blood sugar, gastro-endoscopy or UGI, abdominal sonography, etc. The data was gathered from 337 clients who were undergoing multiphasic screening program at a University Hospital from January to March 1998. The mean age of subjects was 46.5+/-11.2 years and the mean of body mass index was 24.0+/-3.7kg/m2. The mean level of stress was 18.5+/-6.0 expressed as the score out of 40. By general characteristics and life style among male, mean level of stress was significantly higher in case of lower socioeconomic status, habitual drug use, longer daily working time(>10 hours), no regular exercise, drinkers, irregular meal, skipping breakfast(p<0.05). In case of female, that was significantly higher in case of lower education, lower socioeconomic status, longer daily working time(>10 hours), no regular exercise, drinkers, smokers, irregular meal, skipping breakfast(p<0.05). Significant correlations were observed between stress and subjective symptoms in all kinds of organ system(p<0.01). Correlation coefficients of stress among male were relatively high with neuro-psychiatric symptom(gamma=0.476) and cardio-vascular symptom(gamma=0.361) in order, and correlation coefficients of stress among female was highest with neuro-psychiatric symptom(gamma=0.371). The prevalence of the diagnosis through the battery of laboratory tests was high in upper gastrointestinal disorders and hypercholesterolemia in order in both sex group. Among male the mean score of stress was significantly high in ulcerative peptic disorder of upper gastrointestine and hepatopathy in order (p<0.05) . Among female that was significantly high in diabetes mellitus. In summary, it is likely that there are associations between stress, subjective symptoms and clinical diagnosis. To promote wellness and quality of life through, therefore, it would be of value that periodic stress evaluation program and stress management including appropriate control of smoking and drinking, regular exercise and meal.
Summary
PCR and RFLP-based CYP2D6(B) and CYP2D6(T) Genotyping for Korean Lung Cancer Cases and Controls.
Jin Ho Chun, Chang Hee Lee, Sang Hwa Urm, Byung Chul Son, Jun Han Park, Kui Oak Jung, Chang Hak Sohn, Hye Kyoung Yoon, Choon Hee Son, Hyung In Kim, Jin Seok Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(1):1-14.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The genetically determined CYP2D6 activity is considered to be associated with cancer susceptibility with inter-individual variation. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6(B) and CYP2D6(T) was determined by the two polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and BstN1 and EcoN1 restriction fragment length polymorphisms(RFLP) for 67 lung cancer cases and 95 healthy volunteer controls. The cases were composed of 26 squamous cell carcinoma, 14 small cell carcinoma, 10 adenocarcinoma, 3 large cell undifferentiated carcinoma, and 14 not histologically diagnosed. The results were gained from the 142 subjects (57 cases and 85 controls) who observed successfully in two PCR and BstN1/EcoN1 RFLP. Only one and no mutant allele of the CYP2D6(B) and CYP2D6(T) gene was detected, that is, the frequency of mutant allele was very low; 0.7%(1/142) and 0%(0/142), respectively. Detected mutant allele of the CYP2D6(B) was heterozygous type(WM). The odds ratios for lung cancer susceptibility with CYP2D6(B) and CYP2D6(T) genotype were not calculated. These results are similar to the previous understanding that the mutant allele is very rare in Orientals compared to Caucasians, therefore, it considered that CYP2D6(B) and CYP2D6(T) genotypes have maybe no association with lung cancer susceptibility in Koreans. This is the basic data of CYP2D6(B) and CYP2D6(T) genotypes for Koreans. It would be hepful for further study to determine lung cancer susceptibility of Koreans with the data about CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1 from future study.
Summary
Relationship between Life Style, the Level of Stress and Irritable Bowel Syndrome on 1498 Male White Collars.
Jong Ryul Kim, Sang Hwa Urm, Jin Ho Chun, Soo Jin Jeong, Chang Hee Lee, Kui Won Jeong, Soon Seok Choi, Ki Taek Pee
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):791-804.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) is one of the common health problem that has been considered as stress-induced. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between life style and the level of stress and IBS by structured questionnaire which included questions on life style, the self-esteemed gastrointestinal symptoms, and Psychosocial Well-being Index(PWI). Subjects were 1,498 male white collars who get the regular health check and participated in survey at Inje University Health Promotion Center from January to December, 1996. The overall prevalence of IBS was 37.5%(561 cases), and the level of stress by PWI score was higher in IBS group(41.8+/-14.2) than symptom-free group(34.6+/-12.6). As the result of comparison between the two groups, heavier smoking (adjusted OR=2.48, 95% CI 1.81-3.41), longer daily working time (adjusted OR=5.19, 95% CI 3.59-7.56), stimulatory food materials-mainly hot or salty (adjusted OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.44-2.45), higher body mass index (adjusted OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.27-2.57), and higher level of stress (adjusted OR=2.81, 95% CI 1.80-4.43) were estimated as risk factors of IBS. On the contrary, 6-8 hours sleeping per day (adjusted OR=0.38 95% CI 0.21-0.70), 3-4 times exercise per week (adjusted OR=0.57 95% CI 0.39-0.83), and tenure more than 20 years (adjusted OR=0.25 95% CI 0.16-0.35) were considered as protective factors to IBS. In summary, the assessment of the stress level might be placed in the first priority to control IBS, at least by some degree, which suggested that IBS could be controlled by avoiding such risk factors and by encouraging such protective factors.
Summary
Urinary Metabolites and Neurobehavioral Test on Styrene Exposure Workers.
Chang Hee Lee, Deog Hwan Moon, Hun Lee, Jun Han Park, Dae Hwan Kim, Jong Tae Lee, Jin Ho Chun, Hwi Dong Kim, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(4):863-876.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to prepare the fundamental data for the health promotion by assessing the exposure level of styrene, the author determined the concentration of mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid in urine of 42 workers who were exposed to styrene by high performance liquid chromatography and surveyed 16 symptoms, by questionnaire and also tested neurobehavioral test(digit symbol, benton visual retention) in 2 FRP plants of Kyung Nam area from July to September, 1995. Control was sampled by age sex matching method. The concentration of styrene in air was determined by gas chromatography. The results were as follows; 1. Geometric mean concentration of styrene in air was 17.4ppm, geometric mean concentration of mandelic acid(MA) in urine were 404.3mg/g creatinine for exposure group, 46.4mg/g creatinine for control group, geometric mean concentration of phenylglyoxylic acid(PGA) in urine were 57.5mg/g creatinine for exposure group, 9.5mg/g creatinine for control group. Mean concentration of MA and PGA showed statistically significant difference between exposure group and control group(p<0.01). 2. Number of symptom were 2.9 for exposure group, 3.3 for control group, number of digit symbol were 24.1 for exposure group, 32.5 for control group, number of Benton visual retention test were 6.1 for exposure group, 6.0 for control group, respectively. As result of adjusting the education year, number of Benton visual retention test showed statistically significant difference between exposure group and control group(p<0.05). 3. Excellent correlation were observed between environmental styrene exposure and urinary MA(r=0.80), PGA(r=0.73), and MA+PGA(r=0.81).
Summary
Atmospheric Concentration of Heavy Metals of Pusan Area.
In Hyeok Song, Gyu Il Cho, Deog Hwan Moon, Chang Hee Lee, Jung Hak Kang, Jong Gab Kim, Yong Soo Han, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):726-733.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to assess the present level of atmospheric metals. Five metals-lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese, vanadium-were checked on the industrial(Sasang) and residental area(Daeshindong) in the city of Pusan sampling period was the year of 1986, 1990, and 1994, and the sampling time was 2 days of each site. As the result of comparison with the atmospheric standard of ASHRAE(1980) the average concentrations of lead was above the standard, the average concentrations of chromium was around the standard, and the average concentrations of cadmium and vanadium was below the standard. The average concentrations of manganese was above the standard of industrial environment. And the average concentrations of five metals was higher in the industrial area than the residental area The average concentrations of lead cadmium and chromium showed the increase tendency by the year, and the average concentrations of vanadium showed no change, and the average concentrations of manganese showed the decrease tendency. As a result of correlation analysis, lead and cadmium(r=0.31), vanadium and manganese(r=0.24), vanadium and chromium(r=0.19) showed significance.
Summary
Study on activities of some occupational health nurses in Kyungnam area.
Young Sook Kim, Hae Sook Shon, Jeong Hak Kang, Chang Hee Lee, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):576-587.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Authors purposed to observe activities of occupational health nurses and it's related factors, and to suggest the way that induct better occupational health nurses' activities with questionnaire to 87 occupational health nurses who individually work as health manager in the plant. The questionnaire included type of plant and number of workers, general characteristics, work conditions, activities, etc. Major findings are as follows. 1. 82.8% of occupational health nurses were third decade 93.1% graduated junior college or college. And 82.8% were not married. 2. General work conditions: 40.2% were belonged to safety-health section, 98.85% were mere clerks. 60.9% worked less than weekly 44 hours, and an annual salary of 50.6% was between 10million and 14 million won. 3. work condition related to health manager work: there was separated health care room in 94. 3%, working period as health manager(occupational health nurse) was less than 5 years in 70.1%, 49.4% had the out-of-health manager work. In 87.4%, occupational physician was appointed, only 6.9% of them were full time, 52.9% of them worked little in the plants The problems related to workers' health were discussed with industrial nurses in 88.5%. 4. Attitude for their work: 88.5% were thought that their work is important for workers' health care, 57.5% satisfied to work as health manager. In 51.7%, motive to being industrial nurse were the appropriate aptitude. 5. Activities: General medical care in 100 % were carried out, in 97 7% works related to general health examination, in l00% works related to special health examination were carried. But works related to use of protective apparatus were carried out in 20.8%. 6. Factors related to level of activities: In cases who solved the health related problems by themselves, the level of activities was significantly higher than in others. In cases there w ere full time occupational physician, the level of activities was significantly lower. 7. Occupational health nurse's needs: 100% wanted regular education, 89.7% wanted the qualifying examination. As the results, author suggests that the right of self-control is given to occupational health nurses and the work of occupational physician is clearly defined for the induction of the better activities of occupational health nurses.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health