Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Author index

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Author index
Search
Chae Un Lee 17 Articles
Effects of Bisphenol A on the Placental Function and Reproduction in Rats.
Chae Kwan Lee, Seog Hyun Kim, Deog Hwan Moon, Jeong Ho Kim, Byung Chul Son, Dae Hwan Kim, Chang Hee Lee, Hwi Dong Kim, Jung Won Kim, Jong Eun Kim, Chae Un Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(3):330-336.
  • 2,500 View
  • 86 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like environmental endocrine disrupter, on the placental function and reproduction in rats. The mRNA levels of the placental prolactin-growth hormone (PRL-GH) gene family, placental trophoblast cell frequency and reproductive data were analyzed. METHODS: The pregnancies of F344 Fisher rats (160 g +/- 20 g) were detected by the presence of the copulatory plug or sperm in the vaginal smear, which marked Day 0 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with a sesame oil vehicle. The two remaining groups were injected with 50 or 500 mg/kg B.W/day of BPA, resuspended in sesame oil, on either days 7 to 11 or 16 to 20 of pregnancy, with the rats sacrificed on either day 11 or 20, respectively. The mRNA levels of PRL-GH and Pit-1a and b isotype genes were analyzed by Northern blot hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The hormone concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, and the frequency of the placental trophoblast cells observed by a histochemical study. Reproductive data, such as the placental weight and litter size, were surveyed on day 20. The fetal weight was surveyed for 4 weeks after birth. A statistical analysis was carried out using the SAS program (version 8.1). RESULTS: The mRNA levels of the PRL-GH gene family, such as placental lactogen I, Iv and II, prolactin like protein A, C and Cv, and decidual prolactin-related protein were significantly reduced due to BPA exposure. The mRNA levels of the Pit-1a and b isotype genes, which induce the expression of the PRL-GH gene family in the rat placenta, were also reduced due to BPA exposure. The PL-Iv and PL-II concentrations were reduced in the BPA exposed group. During the middle to last stage of pregnancy (Days 11-20), a high dose of BPA exposure reduced the frequency of spongiotrophoblast cells, which are responsible for the secretion of the PRL-GH hormones. Reproductive data, such as the placental and fetal weights and the litter size, were reduced, but that of the pregnancy period was extended in the BPA exposed compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: BPA disrupts the placental functions in rats, which leads to reproductive disorders.
Summary
Effects of Chromium (VI) Exposure on the Placental Function and Reproduction in Rats.
Heun Lee, Jin Ho Chun, Deog Hwan Moon, Chae Un Lee, Sung Goo Kang, Byung Chul Son, Dae Hwan Kim, Chang Hee Lee, Jung Won Kim, Chae Kwan Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(2):157-165.
  • 2,462 View
  • 61 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIONS: This study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of chromium (VI) on the placental function and reproduction in rats. For the study, the placental prolactin-growth hormone (PRL-GH) gene expression, placental trophoblast cell differentiation and reproductive data were analyzed. METHODS: The pregnancies of F344 Fisher rats were checked by the presence of a copulatory plug or sperm in the vaginal smear, which was defined as day 0 of the pregnancy. Pregnant rats were divided into the three groups. The control group was given tap water (chromium level < 0.001 ppm) and the remaining groups were given 250 or 750 ppm of chromium (VI) [as potassium dichromate], from day 7 to 19 of the pregnancy. Rats were sacrificed at days 11 and 20 of pregnancy. The mRNA levels of PRL-GH and Pit-1a and b isotype genes were analyzed by Northern blot hybridization and reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The hormonal concentration was analyzed by radioimmunoassay, and the differentiation of placental trophoblast cells were observed by histochemical studies. Reproductive data, such as placental and fetal weights, pregnancy period, and litter size, were surveyed at day 20 of pregnancy and after birth. A statistical analysis was carried out using the SAS program (version 8.1). RESULTS: The mRNA levels of the prolactin-growth hormone (PRL-GH) family of genes were dose dependently reduced by chromium exposure. The mRNA levels of Pit-1a and b isotype genes that induce the expression of the PRL-GH family of genes were also reduced by chromium exposure. The PRL-GH hormonal concentration in the rat placenta, fetus and maternal blood were decreased by chromium exposure. In the middle stage of pregnancy (day 11), a high dose of chromium suppressed the differentiation of spongiotrophoblast cells that secret the PRLGH hormones. In the last stage of pregnancy (day 20), a high dose of chromium induced apoptosis of placental cells. Reproductive data, such as placental and fetal weights, litter size, were reduced, but the pregnancy period was extended in the group exposed to chromium compared with the controls. CONCLUSION: Chromium (VI) disrupts the ordered functions of the placenta, which leads to reproductive disorders in rats.
Summary
The Knowledge and Practice of the Breast Self-examination in Women who got health check up.
Soo Jin Jeong, Soon Seok Choi, Jun Han Park, Sang Hwa Urm, Kui Won Jeong, Chae Un Lee, Ki Taek Pae
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):740-750.
  • 1,925 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The methods for the early diagnoses of breast cancer are mammography, physical examination, breast self-examination(BSE). This study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and practice of BSE by structured questionnaire which included questions on general characteristics, performance of mammography, physical examination of breast, knowledge and practice of BSE. The subjects in this study were 412 females between 20 and 69 years old who visit to the Health Care Center of College of medicine of Inje University from December 1997 to February 1998. The results were as follows: 1. Women who have gotten the regular mammography are 8.19% of these subjects and women who have gotten the regular physical examination by doctors are 4.19% of these subjects. 2. Regarding BSE, 77.4% of these subjects said that they knew BSE and 3.88% of these subjects said that they practiced BSE regularly. It was that women who knew BSE were more younger, better-educated and higher economic status(p=0.001) and lived a normal life with her husband(p=0.033). And women who practiced BSE regularly were more younger, and married(p=0.001). 3. The most common barrier to doing BSE is 'Do not see the needs/Worry unnecessarily', and the most common reasons for doing BSE is 'Early detection'. 4. The overall frequency and percentage distribution of recommended BSE step in Korea is lower than U.S.A.
Summary
Effect of Therapeutic Exercises on Shoulder Dysfunction in VDT-related female Office Workers.
Soon Seok Choi, Kui Won Jeong, Sang Hwa Urm, Soo Jin Jeong, Jong Tae Lee, Jin Ho Chun, Chae Un Lee, Ki Taek Pae
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):228-239.
  • 2,206 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Visual display terminal(VDT) is popular in majority of office in modern countries. Musculoskeletal pain due to repetitive work with VDT is a serious industrial accident at present. In recent studies, shoulder pain in VDT users is the most common problem in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of exercises on shoulder dysfunction in VDT-related female office workers. Of the l19 patients with shoulder dysfunction, 32 patients entered into the study. 16 patients(Group I) were not prescribed exercises, other 16 patients (Group II) performed throughout the specific shoulder exercises such as pendular exercises(forward, backward and circumduction) and sidelying external rotation exercises with weights. After 3 months of exercises, the two groups were compared in term of the pain rating scale, disability questionnaire score and range of motion score. The results were summarized as follows ; l. The pain rating scale in Group I before and after 3 months were not differenced significantly(p value=0.784) and in Group II, the scale before and after exercises were differenced significantly(p value=0.0005). 2. The disability, questionnaire scores in Group I before and after 3 months were not differenced significantly(p value=0.437) and in Group II, the scores before and after exercises were differenced significantly(p value=0.0002). 3. The ROM scores of the affected shoulder in Group I before and after 3 months were not differenced significantly(p value=0.876) and in Group II, the scores before and after exercises were differenced significantly(p value=0.0017). In conclusion, that the specific shoulder exercises on shoulder dysfunction in VDT-related female office workers are encouraged.
Summary
Seroepidemiologic Study of Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus(HCV) Infection among Koreans in Rural Area, Korea.
Hai Rim Shin, Joon Youn Kim, Jue Bok Song, Byung Seong Suh, Jung Man Kim, Bu Ok Lee, Su Ryang Kim, Mu Guan Yang, Chae Un Lee, Jin Ho Chun, Keun Young Yoo, Yoon Ok Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(1):17-30.
  • 2,085 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus(HBV) and hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection and to determine associated risk factors, a population-based seroepidemiologic study was carried out. In 1993, a health examination survey of the population was carried out in rural area known to have a high incidence of liver cancer. The study population were those who volunteered to participate in a health survey over 10 years of age. Examinees were interviewed by specially trained staffs. Sera from 1,033 study subjects were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by reverse passive hemagglutinin (RPHA) estimation and for hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) by 2nd generation passive hemagglutinin (PHA) estimation, The age and sex standardized prevalence of HBsAg was 6.3% which was similar to national average, but that of anti-HCV was 5.1% which was 4 to 5 times higher than that of blood or other health examinees in Korea. In a multivariate analysis, transfusion history, surgical operative history, and acupuncture history were not associated with HBsAg positivity. In contrast, acupuncture history (adjusted odds ratio[OR]=2.2 : 95% Confidence interval[CI] 1.0-4.7) and surgical operative history(adjusted OR=2.0 : 95% CI 1.0-4.1) were associated with anti-HCV positivity. The present study suggest that there is an highly endemic area of HCV infection in Korea and probably this endemicity is associated with a parenteral source of HCV infection other than blood transfusion.
Summary
Urinary Metabolites and Neurobehavioral Test on Styrene Exposure Workers.
Chang Hee Lee, Deog Hwan Moon, Hun Lee, Jun Han Park, Dae Hwan Kim, Jong Tae Lee, Jin Ho Chun, Hwi Dong Kim, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(4):863-876.
  • 1,966 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to prepare the fundamental data for the health promotion by assessing the exposure level of styrene, the author determined the concentration of mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid in urine of 42 workers who were exposed to styrene by high performance liquid chromatography and surveyed 16 symptoms, by questionnaire and also tested neurobehavioral test(digit symbol, benton visual retention) in 2 FRP plants of Kyung Nam area from July to September, 1995. Control was sampled by age sex matching method. The concentration of styrene in air was determined by gas chromatography. The results were as follows; 1. Geometric mean concentration of styrene in air was 17.4ppm, geometric mean concentration of mandelic acid(MA) in urine were 404.3mg/g creatinine for exposure group, 46.4mg/g creatinine for control group, geometric mean concentration of phenylglyoxylic acid(PGA) in urine were 57.5mg/g creatinine for exposure group, 9.5mg/g creatinine for control group. Mean concentration of MA and PGA showed statistically significant difference between exposure group and control group(p<0.01). 2. Number of symptom were 2.9 for exposure group, 3.3 for control group, number of digit symbol were 24.1 for exposure group, 32.5 for control group, number of Benton visual retention test were 6.1 for exposure group, 6.0 for control group, respectively. As result of adjusting the education year, number of Benton visual retention test showed statistically significant difference between exposure group and control group(p<0.05). 3. Excellent correlation were observed between environmental styrene exposure and urinary MA(r=0.80), PGA(r=0.73), and MA+PGA(r=0.81).
Summary
An Epidemiologic Study on Death Caused by Cancer in Pusan.
Hwi Dong Kim, Hye Won Koo, Moon Suk Kwak, Jong Ryul Kim, Byung Chul Son, Deog Hwan Moon, Jong Tae Lee, Kyu Il Lee, Sang Hwa Ohm, Kui Oak Jung, Jin Ho Chun, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(4):765-784.
  • 2,099 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study surveyed and measured the level and structure of cancer deaths and their trends over time for offering the fundamental data of the cancer prevention and control in Pusan city in the future. Authors conducted the study of descriptive epidemiology using materials derived from the computerized data of total 3,722 certified cancer deaths in Pusan city from January 1 to December 31, 1993 registered on the National Statistical Office, the Republic of Korea. The obtained results were as follows: 1. According to the total registered cases of deaths(16,331 cases) in Pusan city during 1993, cancer(3,722 cases) and cerebrovascular disease(2,718 cases) were the first and second cause of deaths as 23.1% and 16.9%, respectively. These pattern showed the change between cancer(14.7%) and cerebrovascular disease(18.5%) in order of frequency in comparison to 1982. Also, the total number of cancer deaths was increased in comparison to 1982. The rate of death certification by physicians was 87.1% of all registered deaths, which was increased to 6.8% in comparison to 1982(80.3%). 2. Crude death rate and cancer specific death rate was 4.06 per 1,000 populations and 93.8 per 100,000 populations(male:117.8, female:70.0), respectively. The former was similar to that of 1982, but the latter was increased to 1.6 times as that of 1982. 3. Age-adjusted cancer specific death rate by standardization with whole country population was 111.9(male:141.5, female:106.7) per 100,000 populations, higher than not age-adjusted cancer specific death rate(93.8), and the sex difference was statistically significant with male predominance(p<0.05). 4. Cancer specific death rate by age was generally increased with age and most of cancer deaths(male:91.8%, female:88.5%) occurred since 40 years old. 5. The major cancer(cancer specific death rate per 100,000 populations) in male was liver(30.6) followed by stomach(25.6), lung(21.9), and GB and EHBD(5.7), in female stomach(15.7), liver(9.9), lung(7.3), and uterus(6.9). The relative frequency of the leading three cancer among total cancer deaths marked 66.3% in male and 47.1% in female, and decreased in comparison to 1982(male:72.2%, female:54.5%). 6. The total ratio of male to female cancer specific death rate showed 1.68 to 1 with male predominance. And the ratio was above 2.0 in larynx, oral cavity & pharynx, esophagus, liver, lung, bladder cancer and the ratio was 1.0~1.9 in stomach, pancreas, gall bladder and EHBD, brain, rectum and anus cancer, leukemia, but the ratio was reversed in thyroid and colon cancer. In conclusion, cancer was the first cause of deaths. The proportion of lung cancer was increased, that of stomach & uterine cancer was decreased relatively, and liver cancer was constantly higher proportion. In the future, it is necessary to conduct the further investigations on the cancer risk factors considering areal specificity.
Summary
A Case-Control Study on Risk Factors of Uterine Cervix Cancer in Korea.
Hye Won Koo, Keun Young Yoo, Dong Hyun Kim, Yong Sang Song, No Hyun Park, Soon Beom Kang, Hyo Pyo Lee, Yoon Ok Ahn, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):159-172.
  • 2,297 View
  • 40 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A hospital-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of uterine cervical cancer in korea. Information on a wide-range of life-styles, which might be related with uterine cervix cancer, has been routinely collected through a dual application of the self-administered questionnaire and the direct interview by a well-trained nurse at the Department of Gynecology, Seoul National University Hospitals since 1992. The number of cervical cancer cases, histologically confirmed at the hospital, were 284. Included were 939 women as controls, who were free of past history of any malignancies. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence limits were based on the unconditional logistic regression model. The multivariate logistic model was constructed under the consideration of biologic characteristics on the natural history of the malignancy. In the multivariate results, the uterine cervical cancer risk was higher in women of shorter height(P(trend) <0.05), less educated spouse (P(trend) < 0.001), multiple marriages(adjusted OR=2,70,95% C.I. 1.64~4.47), ever had a family history (adjusted OR=2.14., 95 % C.I. l.18~3.89), multiparity (P(trend) < 0.001), and early age at first delivery (P(trend) < 0.001). These results strongly suggest that the uterine cervix cancer might be related to the reproductive factors, and probably with sexual behaviour of both women and men in Korea.
Summary
Atmospheric Concentration of Heavy Metals of Pusan Area.
In Hyeok Song, Gyu Il Cho, Deog Hwan Moon, Chang Hee Lee, Jung Hak Kang, Jong Gab Kim, Yong Soo Han, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):726-733.
  • 1,815 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out to assess the present level of atmospheric metals. Five metals-lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese, vanadium-were checked on the industrial(Sasang) and residental area(Daeshindong) in the city of Pusan sampling period was the year of 1986, 1990, and 1994, and the sampling time was 2 days of each site. As the result of comparison with the atmospheric standard of ASHRAE(1980) the average concentrations of lead was above the standard, the average concentrations of chromium was around the standard, and the average concentrations of cadmium and vanadium was below the standard. The average concentrations of manganese was above the standard of industrial environment. And the average concentrations of five metals was higher in the industrial area than the residental area The average concentrations of lead cadmium and chromium showed the increase tendency by the year, and the average concentrations of vanadium showed no change, and the average concentrations of manganese showed the decrease tendency. As a result of correlation analysis, lead and cadmium(r=0.31), vanadium and manganese(r=0.24), vanadium and chromium(r=0.19) showed significance.
Summary
Study on activities of some occupational health nurses in Kyungnam area.
Young Sook Kim, Hae Sook Shon, Jeong Hak Kang, Chang Hee Lee, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):576-587.
  • 1,986 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Authors purposed to observe activities of occupational health nurses and it's related factors, and to suggest the way that induct better occupational health nurses' activities with questionnaire to 87 occupational health nurses who individually work as health manager in the plant. The questionnaire included type of plant and number of workers, general characteristics, work conditions, activities, etc. Major findings are as follows. 1. 82.8% of occupational health nurses were third decade 93.1% graduated junior college or college. And 82.8% were not married. 2. General work conditions: 40.2% were belonged to safety-health section, 98.85% were mere clerks. 60.9% worked less than weekly 44 hours, and an annual salary of 50.6% was between 10million and 14 million won. 3. work condition related to health manager work: there was separated health care room in 94. 3%, working period as health manager(occupational health nurse) was less than 5 years in 70.1%, 49.4% had the out-of-health manager work. In 87.4%, occupational physician was appointed, only 6.9% of them were full time, 52.9% of them worked little in the plants The problems related to workers' health were discussed with industrial nurses in 88.5%. 4. Attitude for their work: 88.5% were thought that their work is important for workers' health care, 57.5% satisfied to work as health manager. In 51.7%, motive to being industrial nurse were the appropriate aptitude. 5. Activities: General medical care in 100 % were carried out, in 97 7% works related to general health examination, in l00% works related to special health examination were carried. But works related to use of protective apparatus were carried out in 20.8%. 6. Factors related to level of activities: In cases who solved the health related problems by themselves, the level of activities was significantly higher than in others. In cases there w ere full time occupational physician, the level of activities was significantly lower. 7. Occupational health nurse's needs: 100% wanted regular education, 89.7% wanted the qualifying examination. As the results, author suggests that the right of self-control is given to occupational health nurses and the work of occupational physician is clearly defined for the induction of the better activities of occupational health nurses.
Summary
Assessment of Validity of RT-PCR and EIA for The Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.
Byung Chul Son, Jin Ho Chun, Yeong Hong Park, Hai Rim Shin, Kyu Il Cho, Jong Han Kim, Kui Oak Jung, Jong Tae Lee, Chae Un Lee, Nak Whan Paik
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(2):526-541.
  • 1,975 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to estimate the validity of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) compared to enzyme immunoassay(EIA) for the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. ElA for antibody to HCV(anti-HCV) and RT-PCR for HCV was executed on the subjects from Pusan and kyungnam area with questionnaire survey to collect some relating factors of HCV infection As the result from 617 cases, the prevalence of flcv infection was 1.5% by ElA and 3.7% by RT-PCR(p<0.05), and the age standardized rate was 1.7% and 3.4% by ElA and RT-PCR, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg) was 6.8% by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELlSA) and the age standardized rate was 7.7%. It was the higher in male group comparing to female group(p<0.01). Both of the prevalence of HCV and HBsAg were higher in elevated asparate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) group than in normal AST and ALT group(p<0.01). There was no specific risk factor of HCV infection. Though the degree of agreement of EIA and RT-PCR by gamma statistics was 97.2%, it showed a significant difference between the two methods(p<0.01). For the detection of HCV infection, positive predictive value of ElA was 66.7 % and negative predictive value of EIA was 97.2%. This study suggests that negative result to anti-HCV by ElA didn't mean the free state of HCV infection, therefore it would be helpful that further monitoring for HCV infection by RT-PCR in the case of elevated AST and ALT and/or clinically suspected.
Summary
Risk factors of work-related low back pain in manufacturing workers.
Dae Hwan Kim, Jung Ho Kim, Hae Lim Shin, Jin Ho Chun, Yong Wan Kim, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(1):20-36.
  • 2,422 View
  • 38 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Work-related low back pain is one of the major factors that cause the loss of working power especially in actively working age, therefore controlling the work-related low back pain is one of the major issues in the field of industrial safety and health. This study was performed for detecting the risk factors and proposing the efficient control program of the work-related low back pain. The subjects were male workers employed at the manufacturing industry in Pusan with longer than 6 month's working duration. The data was collected by self-reported questionnaire and interview from May 1 to October 31, 1992. The contents of questionnaire were as follows : the experience of low back within the recent one month, general characteristics(age, marital status, education level, religion, regular exercise), physical characteristics(height, weight), employment status(working duration, daily working hours, rest during work, satisfaction for the job), type of work and working environments(posture, forward bending, lifting and movement, satisfaction for table and chair). The result was analyzed for 608 entire respondents by case-control comparative method. The number of cases was 152 with a history of work-related low back pain, so the relative frequency of self-reported work-related low back pain was 25.0%, and the number of controls was 344 without any history of low back pain. As a result, two characteristics of the employment status(working duration, satisfaction for the job) and all characteristics of type of work and working environments showed a statistical significance between the case and control groups(p<0.01). The Odds ratios of these variables for Work-related low back pain were calculated. They were 7.88 for the satisfaction for chair, 7.86 for lifting and movement, 3.31 for satisfaction for table, and 2.22 for bending forward(p<0.01). And for the multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that unsatisfaction for table was independent risk factor for Work-related low back pain. In summary, though this study was based upon the self-reported questionnaire and the subjective complaints, the satisfaction for chair, lifting and movement, satisfaction for table, and bending forward concerned with the type of work and working environments were considered as the main factors causing the work-related low back pain, and the work-related low back pain may be preventable by the ergonomic control of these factors.
Summary
A study on the productivity of physicians operating clinic in Kyeongsangnamdo.
Jeong Ho Kim, Kwi Won Jeong, Jin Ho Chun, Chae Un Lee, Ki Taek Pae, Kong Hyun Kim, Hae Rim Shin, Hyung Jong Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(2):171-180.
  • 1,889 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Productivity analysis of physician is one of essential factors for the optimal health manpower planning. Among 690 physicians operating clinic and registered on the Kyeongsangnamdo Medical Association, 623 physicians were studied with a structural questionnaire from April 1 to May 31, 1990. This study covers the general characteristics and productivity of physicians and attempts to find relevant determinants of their productivity through stepwise multiple regression analysis based on collected data. The major results were as follows. First, physicians were more prevalent 35~44 group (38.2%) in age, male (95.8%) in sex, specialist (76.5%) in specialization, city (78.0%) in geographical location. Age group of 35-54 and specialist were more prevalent in cities than in counties, while age group of 25-44 and 55 over and general practitioner in counties (p<0.001). Second, daily outpatient load of all physician were 77.1 persons on average. Age group of 35~44 had the most outpatient load (90.3 persons) among all age group, 6~10 years group (94.2 persons) in years of duration of practice, 11 hours per day group (83.4 persons) in working hours per day. Specialists had more outpatient load (82.6 persons) than general practitioners (61.1 persons) and physicians in cities had more (80.2 persons) than physicians in counties (66.3 persons). Daily average outpatient load of physicians were significantly different by their age, speciality, number of assistants and years of practice (p<0.001) and working location (p<0.05), but not significantly different by working hours per day of physician (p>0.1). Third, the productivity of physicians operating clinic were significantly affected by the three factorsnumber of assistants of physician, age of physician and duration of practice at the current clinic. Age of physician had negative regression coefficient.
Summary
Urinary Hippuric Acid Excretion in Toluene Exposed Workers.
Chae Un Lee, Hai Rim Shin, Byung Mann Cho, Deog Hwan Moon, Hae Sook Shon, Kyu Il Cho, Sung Chun Kim, Yong Wan Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):374-379.
  • 1,902 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to prepare the fundamental data for preventing the hazardous effects at toluene exposure in many kinds of industry, the authors determined the level of urinary hippuric acid on 592 toluene exposed women(exposed group) and 102 unexposed women(control group) in Pusan area, from April 1 to October 31, 1986. Hippuric acid was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The mean value of urinary hippuric acid concentration of the control group was 0.44+/-0.21g/l(0.11-0.89g/l). The distribution of urinary hippuric acid concentration of the control group was not fit to the normal distribution. 2. The mean value of urinary hippuric acid concentration of the exposed group was 1.56+/-0.95g/l(0.44-4.57g/l). The distribution of urinary hippuric acid concentration of control group was not fit to the normal distribution. 3. The urinary hippuric acid concentration by age group was not statistically significant in the control group, but in the exposed the urinary hippuric acid concentration was highest in women between 20-29 years old(1.71+/-0.95g/l) and was statistically significant(p<0.01). 4. The urinary hippuric acid concentration by duration of working hours was not statistically significant(p>0.1).
Summary
A Study on the Indoor-Outdoor NO2 Levels and Personal Exposures to NO2 with Analysis of Factors Affecting the NO2 Concentrations: Centering on Urban Homes and Housewives.
Jin Ho Chun, Chae Un Lee, Joon Youn Kim, Yo Han Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):132-151.
  • 1,933 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to establish the control program for preventing unfavorable health effects of nitrogen dioxide(NO2) exposure in homes by preparing the fundamental data for evaluation of relationships between NO2 levels and influencing factors through measurements of indoor-outdoor NO2 levels and personal NO2 exposures for housewives with questionnaire survey on 172 homes in Pusan area from April to June, 1987. NO2 measurements were made by using diffusion tube samplers(Palmes tube NO2 sampler) for one week at 4 sites in homes ; kitchen(KIT), bedroom(BED), living room(LIV), outdoor(OUT) and near the collar housewives(personal exposure livel, PNO). The details of questionnaire were number of household members(FAM), number of regular smokers(SMOKER), daily number of meals eaten(MEAL), type of housing units(HOUSE), location of house with distance from the heavy traffic roads as walking time(DIST), and of kitchen(KAREA), kind of cooking fuels(FUEL), cooking time of each meal(CTIME), usage of kitchen fan for cooking(FAN), type of heating facilities(HEAT) and so on of subject homes. The obtained results were as follows : 1) The mean NO2 level was significantly higher at indoors than outdoors(p<0.01) and the kitchen NO2 level was the highest with 33.7+/-13.6ppb(9.5-81.5ppb). The mean personal exposure level of NO2 for housewives was 20.6+/-8.8ppb(3.1-46.9ppb). 2) The mean indoor NO2 level was significantly higher in the group of household members above 5 than below 4(p<0.05), in detached dwellings than apartments(p<0.001), within 5 minutes of distance than over 5 minutes(p<0.001), in the group of unusing fan(p<0.001), in the group of longer cooking time(p<0.001), and it was in order of coal briquette, gas, electricity and oil by kind of cooking fuels(p<0.05). 3) Variables showing significant correlation(p<0.001) with indoor NO2 level were kitchen NO2 level(r=0.8677), cooking time(r=0.5921), outdoor NO2 exposure level(r=0.4615), usage of kitchen fan(r=0.3573) and location of house(r=-0.2988). 4) As a result of multiple regression analysis, the most significant influencing variable to the kitchen NO2 level was cooking time [KIT=-0.378+/-11.772(CRIME)+0.298(OUT)+3.102(FAN)], it was kitchen NO2 level to the indoor NO2 level [IND = 6.996+0.458 (KIT) + 0.230 (OUT) - 1.127 (KAREA)], and it was indoor NO2 level to the personal NO2 exposure level [PNO=15.562+0.729(IND)-4.542(DIST)-0.200(KIT)]. 5) It was recognized that artificial ventilation in the kitchen, suppression of unnecessary combustion and replacement of cooking fuel, as much as possible, were effective means for decreasing indoor NO2 levels in homes.
Summary
An Analysis of Deaths Caused by Cancer in Metropolitan Areas of Korea: Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Incheon.
Chae Un Lee, Joon Youn Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1987;20(1):84-96.
  • 1,658 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
For the purpose of preparing the basic data for further cancer epidemiologic study and cancer patients control, we conducted the analysis on the degree and structure of deaths from cancer in metropolitan areas of Korea with 7,934 certified cancer deaths records of Seoul, Pusan, Taegu and Incheon in 1982. The analyzed results were as follows : 1) The total number of cancer deaths in metropolitan areas were 7,934 (male: 4,749, female: 3,185) as 14.1% of deaths from all causes in the same area. 2) The rate of physician's certification on cancer deaths was 77.4% and most of cancer deaths (84.4%) occurred at their home. 3) Cancer specific death rate was 51.7 per 100,000 population (male: 62.9, female: 41.9) and age-adjusted cancer death rate was 82.4 in male and 51.6 in female per 100,000 population. And the difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). 4) Age-specific cancer death rate was generally increased with age and most of cancer deaths (male: 75%, female: 65%) occurred from 45 to 74 years old. 5) The first three orders of cancer site were stomach (32.7%), liver (28.8%), lung (11.7%) in male and stomach (30.6%), uterus (18.4%), liver (13.8%) in female. And the relative frequency of these three cancer sites among total cancer deaths was corresponded to 73.2% in male and 62.8% in female. 6) The ratio of male to female cancer death rate was 1.5:1. And the ratio was above 3.0 in esophagus, liver, larynx, bladder cancer and the ratio was similar to 1.0 in stomach, pancreas, leukemia, brain, colon cancer, but the ratio was reversed in gall bladder and bile duct, and thyroid cancer.
Summary
A Survey on the Status of Noisy Working Environment in Manufacturing Industries.
Joon Youn Kim, Byung Soo Kim, Chae Un Lee, Jin Ho Jun, Jong Tae Lee, Jin Ok Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):16-30.
  • 1,883 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to prepare the fundamental data for the improvement of noisy working environments and the effective hearing conservation program on workers exposed to industrial noise, the authors surveyed the working processes and evaluated the noise levels on 56 manufacturing industries in Pusan area from April to July in 1985. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The noise level was the highest in shipbuilding and repairing(95.6 dBA), and followed by steel rolling(92.9 dBA), manufacture of motor vehicles(93.1 dBA), manufacure of fishing nets(92.9 dBA), manufacture of testiles(92.5 dBA), iron and steel foundries(89.3 dBA), manufacture of metal products(89.1 dBA), preserving and processing of marine foods(87.0 dBA), manufacture of rubber products(85.3 dBA), manufacture of plywood(84.9 dBA) and manufacture of paints(84.5 dBA). 2. Among fifty surveyed working processes, the noise level of twenty-one processes(42%) exceeded the threshold limit value for 8 hours per day. 3. As the allowable exposure times by governmental threshold limit values to industrial noise level(dBA), cocking of shipbuilding and repairing and plating(CGL) of steel rolling were the shortest(30 minutes), and followed by assembling(rivet) of manufacture of motor vehicles(1 hour) weaving of manufacture of textiles and shot, machine, pipe laying of shipbuilding and repairing(2 hours). 4. By the result of octave band analysis on noisy working processes in excess of 90 dBA, the sound level was the highest at 2,000 Hz or 4,000 Hz. 5. It was recognized that the measurement of overall sound pressure level was also effective as octave band analysis in evaluating the industrial noise.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health