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Bong Ki Jang 4 Articles
Assessment of the Naktong river pollution after phenol spillage from the Kumi industrial estates II, Korea.
Doo Hie Kim, Bong Ki Jang, Sung Chul Hong, Hyo Jung Moon, Duck Hee Lee, Hae Ju Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(2):268-281.
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The aquatic quality of the Naktong river after two of three months in June, 1991 with phenol spillage from a electrical factory in Kumi was investigated. The samples were collected at six sites of the Naktong river basin and Kachang and Kongsan lakes. Phenol was not detected from all water samples. Turbidity was very much increased to the down stream in the Naktong river. The BOD and COD values exceeded the 2nd grade(3 mg/l) of the Korean standard quality of Environmental Water Act at the all sampling sites of the Naktong river. Especially, the value of COD at Kaejin (12.5 mg/l) was poorly classified as to the 5th grade of water class for the environmental quality standards. Organophosphorous pesticides such as parathion, malathion, fenitrothion and diazinon were investigated but not detected. Diazinon was only detected at the Ilson bridge(1.42 ppb), Okkye stream(6.95 ppb), Waekwan bridge(0.32 ppb), Gangjung reservior(0.13 ppb), Kaejin(0.05 ppb). Of the carbamates such as carbanyl, isoprocarb and cabofuran, the carbofuran was detected all sites except tap water, and Kachang and Kongsan lakes. The content of heavy metals such ans Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Hg were not exceeding for drinking water standards at the all sampling region, but only mecury was detected from Okkye stream(0.018ppb) and Kaejin(0.09ppb). In the regions of Kachang and Kongsan lakes, the content of heavy metals were lower than that of reservoir of Naktong river.
Summary
Illness Associated With Contamination Of Drinking Water Supplies With Phenol.
Doo Hie Kim, Sung Kook Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Duk Hee Lee, Sung Chul Hong, Bong Ki Jang
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(2):202-209.
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A accidental spills of phenol(100%) to the river Nakdong with subsequent contamination of the tap water for about two million consumers in Taegu city of Korea were occurred in March 1991. A historical cohort study of 6,913 individuals was undertaken to determine the associated with illness. Population subjects were divided into two groups of exposed and unexposed. Exposed subjects were reported to be phenol associated symptoms significantly higher than those in a nearby unexposed area(39.6% vs 9.4%, p<0.01). Especially, in the related symptoms, highly significant differences were noted in the number of subjects reporting gastrointestinal illness such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. During the accident, study subjects who experienced peculiar taste or odor in the tap water were significantly higher in the exposed areas(92% vs 34.3%). Chlorophenols formed from chlorination of water may have aggravated the problem.
Summary
Hair Heavy Metal Contents in Mentally Retarded Children III: In Association with Mercury.
Ki Hwan Han, Bong Ki Jang, Soon Woo Park, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(3):368-379.
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The relationship between mercury level of hair and mental retardation was investigated. The 297 subjects with mental retardation were drawn from two schools providing special educational services, one, consisted of children living in an orphan home, another, children with parents. The 117 control subjects were drawn from whom had got average or above average academic achievement in a regular elementary school. Hair sample were taken from the nape of the neck and the mercury analysis was carried out on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer(IL 551). There was no relationship between mercury contents and age, and there was a statistically significant difference in mercury contents between male and female in the mentally retarded children living with parents. Children in the retarded group had significantly higher mercury contents compared with control group except the female group with parents. Also, the mercury levels in the retarded group living in an orphan home were significantly higher than that of the retarded group with parents. The concomitant diseases were Down's syndrome, epilepsy, cerebral palsy and autism. There were statistically significant differences in hair mercury levels in the cases of accompanying Down's syndrome and cerebral palsy in male and Down's syndrome and autism in female compared with the control group of the same sex. The most accompanying handicap was speech disturbance(40.7%) and the others were crippled, emotional disturbance etc. The percentages of double handicap were 66.7% among 6 persons exceeding 6ppm of their hair mercury contents, 10.4% among 3~6 ppm and 15.7% among the group of 3ppm or less. The findings of this study suggest that the more opportunities of exposure to mercury in mentally retarded children may have occurred, so it can not be excluded the possibility of mercury as a contributing factor to mental retardation. Therefore, the causal relationship between mercury levels and mental retardation should be established through the examinations about their living environments, dietary pattern, eating habit etc.
Summary
Contents of Lead, Cadmium and Zinc in Bone, Muscle and Fin of Carassius carassius from Middle Stream of Nakdong River, Korea.
Doohie Kim, Yong Gu Kim, Bong Ki Jang
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):307-319.
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In order to determine the contents of lead, cadmium and zinc, the tissues of the crussian carp, Carassius carassius, collected from the middle streams of the Nakdong river were examined. During the dry season from 8 to 15, March, 1987, six loci were selected to sample the fish and river water; five of them were the midstreams of the Nakdong river i.e., the vicinities of the Andong dam, the Nakdong bridge, the Waegwan bridge, Gangjung and Gaepori, the other one was the Kumho river around the Paldal bridge(see Fig.1). The microanalyses of lead and cadmium contents were undertaken by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer(Model IL-551) connected with CTF-IL 655, while that of zinc by the flame method with IL-551 only. The contents of lead and cadmium in water sampled from Gaepori distant from about 30km downward from the junction with the Kumho river were about 1.5 times higher than those from Gangjung distant about 0.5km upward from the junction, and the content of zinc from Gaepori was slightly higher than that from Gangjung. However, the contents of lead and cadmium in water sampled from Gaepori were three fifth of those from the vicinity of Paldal bridge far about 2km upperward from the junction. In the other words, the contents of lead and cadmium in the samples from the vicinity of the Paldal bridge were about 2.5 to 3 times higher than those from the Gangjung and 5 times higher than those from the Andong dam. The contents of the heavy metals in the tissues of Carassius carassius were relatively consistent to those of the aquatic environments were the fish were collected, with higher contents in the tissues of the crussian carp collected from the vicinity of Gaepori and the Paldal bridge which were so much polluted than in those from other loci in upper stream from the junction. And the contents of lead and cadmium in tissues were positively correlated with the age of the fish, however, that zinc was not. The contents of lead in bone of crussian carp from the vicinity of the Paldal bridge in the group of 0-1 year old fish were similar to those of 4-5 years old fish from Gaepori, and higher than those of 3-4 years old fish collected from the upper stream of the junction. It is likely that fishing from Gaepori and the paldal bridge is not recommended, and all the industrial producers have to pay intensive attention to the water pollution due to the sewage disposal.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health